TTW - Tilting Three Wheelers

Patents

© Brooke Clarke 2002 - 2015



Featured Patents
U.S. Patents
European Patents
World Intellectual Property Organization
Japanese Patents
Section added 14 April 2002

16 Sep 2016 - New Atlas - Toyota to Begin Verifying the Needs of Businesses to encourage the Practical Use of the i-Road - OPEN ROAD EXPRESS - Wiki - electric tilting 3-wheel vehicle

 7896360 Vehicle stabilizer system, Toyota, Mar 1, 2011, 280/5.511, 280/5.502, 280/5.51, 280/5.52 - 4-wheel car


2015, May 11 Gizmag - Yamaha announces narrow, light and very affordable Tricity tilting 3-wheeler & overview of other tilting three wheelers
Yamaha UK - not the U.S.
2015, Nov 2015 - Yahama Leaning Multi Wheel (LMW) development
First Motor Scooter patent?  "In 1977, Yamaha released the Passol 50cc (Class I) scooter.  Featuring a step-through design so the rider didn’t have to sit astride the machine, the scooter was very popular with women."
US D252141 S Motorcycle,  Koichiro Matsuoka, Tsunemi Kawashima, Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha (Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.), priority: Jun 16, 1976, D12/110

May 2011
Swingtrike - E-Trike


This page is based on the TTW - Tilting Three Wheelers Patents web page, but links to the USPTO have been added by Brooke Clarke.  Mitch Casto's research has turned up many patents related to tilting trikes. Here is a beginning to the list… click on any of the thumbnail sketches to see the first page of the patent. Note well that there are dozens more below. You can email Mitch Casto at mitchcasto@email.com.
In order to see the images you will need a TIFF viewer for your browser.  The USPTO has a web page "PatentFull-Page Images" with links to free viewers for different operation systems.

Featured Patents

 
Patent No.4,541,501, 180/215; 180/217; 280/62; 280/282, Articulated Tricycle, K. Kawasaki, Sep 17, 1985 , 1985,  Very much like an uncovered GM Lean Machine, this patent shows the most conventional of tilt trikes.
 
 
3029889 Apr., 1962 Paramythioti 280/111.
3504934 Apr., 1970 Wallis 280/112.
3583727 Jun., 1971 Wallis 280/112.
4003443 Jan., 1977 Boughers 280/112.
4159752 Jul., 1979 Kanno 280/111.
4356876 Nov., 1982 Watanabe et al. 180/210.
4437535 Mar., 1984 Winchell et al. 180/215.
4469188  Sep., 1984 Mita 180/215.
Patent No. 5,240,267, 280/240; 280/124.103; 280/259; 280/261; 280/282; 280/287, Tricycle, P. Owsen, Aug 31,
This pedal powered tilt trike has two interesting features: first, it is foldable, and second, as you can see from the thumbnail sketch, the tilt linkage causes the bike to tilt along the line of the contact point of the front tire to the road.
 
3311388 Mar., 1967 Ryan et al. 280/282.
3583727 Jun., 1971 Wallis 280/112.
3698502 Oct., 1972 Patin 280/282.
4432561 Feb., 1984 Feikema et al. 280/282.
4540192 Sep., 1985 Shelton 280/282.
4789173 Dec., 1988 Lofgren et al. 280/282.
Patent No. 4,903,857, 280/267; 280/269, Leaning vehicle with centrifugal force compensation, K.L. Klopfenstein, Feb 27, 1990,  This pedal powered tilt trike is different in that the wheel pair is in the front, not the rear. It still tilts, though!
 
 
 
 
3237961 Mar., 1966 McMullen 280/772.
3447623 Jun., 1969 Hott 280/269.
3645558 Feb., 1972 McMullen 280/270.
3746118 Jul., 1973 Altorfer 280/112.
4020914 May., 1977 Trautwein 280/112.
4072325 Feb., 1978 Bright et al. 280/772.
4088199 May., 1978 Trautwein 180/209.
4351410  Sep., 1982 Townsend 280/267.
4360224 Nov., 1982 Sato et al. 280/772.
4469344 Sep., 1984 Coil 280/269.
4624469 Nov., 1986 Bourne, Jr. 280/112.
4632413 Dec., 1986 Fujita et al. 280/112.
4634137 Jan., 1987 Cocksedge  280/269.
4650213 Mar., 1987 Fujita et al.  280/772.
4660853 Apr., 1987  Jephcott 280/772.
4740004 Apr., 1988 McMullen 280/269
Patent No. 4,660,853, 280/5.509, Vehicle body tilting mechanism, E.F.N. Jephcott, Apr 28, 1987,
Jephcott patented the mechanism for automatically tilting the vehicle body apart from the vehicle itself. Indeed, this tilting mechanism could be applied to a four wheeler, or train, or anything. Jephcott, recall, is the inventor if the tilt-trike, 1980, and the Jephcott Micro, 1987. The Micro employed this patented mechanism.
 
 
 
 
 
3285623 Nov., 1966 Winsen 280/112.
4487429 Dec., 1984 Ruggles 280/772.
2,493,817 180/210; 180/11; 180/205; 280/202; 280/269 Powered Three Wheeled Vehicle, T. G. Hare, Jan 10, 1950, 2F str, 1R pwr. Tilting
 
 
 
2,819,093 280/282; 180/215; 188/204R; 280/62; 280/124.103 Suspension Mechanism for Motor Vehicles and the Like, H.E. Geiser, Jan 7, 1958, 1F steer, 2R power, Tilting. Calls:
 
 
 
880025 Running Gear or Suspension Frame for Vehicles, R. Herman, Feb 25, 1908, 4 wheel, more comfort
1026851 Running Gear for Motor Vehicles, D.M. Dearing, May 21, 1912,
1252643 Tractor, J. Anderson & J.G. Fleming, Jan 8, 1918, 2F steer, 2R drive, provision to tilt
2116027 280/124.103, Motor Vehicle, J. Kolbe, May 3, 1938, Tilting for passenger comfort
2232549 280/124.111; 280/444, Truck Construction, G.G. McNamara, Feb 18, 1941, improved lean (not tilt)
2260102 280/5.509, Automobile Vehicle, P.L. Freret, Oct 21, 1941, Tilt for safety
3,277,840 105/145; 33/328; 33/333; 33/365; 73/504.09; 74/5R; 105/453; 180/209; 280/5.502;280/5.509; 280/6.156, Vehicle Stablization System, Yao Tzu Li Oct 11,1966, 1F3T narrow track motorcycle based machine with assisted Tilt. It is likely the later reported in work at MIT Call:
 
 
2568402 200/61.51; 37/907; 74/5.22; 105/82; 105/164; 280/43.19 Vehicle Stabilizing Apparatus, L.B. Lynn, Sep 18, 1951, railroad car automatic tilt for passenger comfort
2579570 244/79 244/80 244/179 Gyroscope and Pendulum Control System for Airplanes, F.F. Hauptman, Dec 25, 1951
31193493119349 104/243 104/23.2 104/124 104/130.01 104/134, Track-Mounted Transport Means or Systems, V.W. Hampton, Jan 28, 1964,
3,572,456 180/217 180/305 280/124.103 280/275 Bankable Tricycle TypeVehicle, A.D. Healy, March 30, 1971, Tilting
 
 
 
1457025 414/459 301/127, Lumber Carrier, C.F. Gerlinger, May 29, 1923,
3154164 180/209 180/6.24 180/6.48 180/242 180/253 180/308 180/900 180/906 280/6.15 280/43 280/124.112 280/638, Off Highway Tractor, H.H. Shaw et al, Oct 27, 1964 lateral and vertical adjustment of wheels
3480098 180/41 280/6.154,  Hydraulic Leveling and Control Means for Tractors and other Vehicles, J.E. Ward Jr, Nov 25 1969, Tilt for hillside


The following is an updated list from the tireless Mitch Casto, November 1999, of TTW-related patents. You can see details about many, though not all, of these patents at this IBM site: http://www.patents.ibm.com. Thanks, Mitch! 20 March 2002, the IBM patent server was sold to Delphion who made if a for hire site(you can register and get a 1 day free pass).  In the meantime the USPTO has improved their site. For more on patents see my Learning page.

United States Patents

All the U.S. patents are on line, but only as TIFF images.  This means you need to get a TIFF viewer fro your browser (see:   ) and it also means you can not search, the only way to access these is by knowing the patent number.

1332042 280/203; 280/283 Johnston 1920, motorcycle sidecar which is comftorable
2152938 280/124.103; 267/254; 280/124.141 Vehicle Banking Mechanism, E.L. Welch, April 4, 1939, Tilt
2221196 Front Axle of Rear-Motored Automobiles, Milos Klavik, Nov 12, 1940
2702196 280/203 Mororcycle Sidecar Coupling Means, R.L. Gamaunt, Feb 15, 1955, motorcycle sidecar which Tilts
2960941 105/164; 105/199.2; 280/5.509 , Yao Tzu Li, Nov 22, 1960, Vehicle Stablizer, Tilting for stability of railroad cars (3277840 Li pat)

2492990
2568402 200/61.51; 37/907; 74/5.22; 105/82; 105/164; 280/43.19 Vehicle Stabilizing Apparatus, L.B. Lynn, Sep 18, 1951, railroad car automatic tilt for passenger comfort
2633811
 
3504934 280/282 180/217 D12/112 Tricycle Wheel and Frame Arrangement, G.L.Wallis, April 7, 1970  Steers rear wheels by tilting the upper frame.   Probably is the patent for the 1F1T Ariel Three which was produced in Britain by BSA
3561778 280/7.14 280/12.14 280/16 280/269 280/282 D12/112 Three Wheeled Vehicle, E.G. La Brie, Feb 9 1971,   La Brie 2F3TNL human powered, pedalled chain drive allows tilting during a turn

3583727 280/283 180/215 280/124.103  Tricycle Vehicles, G.L.Wallis, June 8, 1971,  can tilt into turn, see also 3504934
3601213 180/215 280/62 D12/112 Stablized Three-Wheeled Vehicle, P. Patin, Aug 24, 1971, low speed stability from 3 wheels, higher speed stability by tilting into turns.
3645558 280/270 280/275 Bicycle Trainer Velociepede, W.W. McMullen, Feb 29, 1972,  banking 3-wheeler 1FNL? helps teach how to ride a bicycle without falling by banking based on handlebar position
3669468 280/267 280/282 Wheeled Toy, E.W. Rich, June 13, 1972, tilts to the inside of turns
3696681 74/13 474/62  Tilt Wheel Chain Drive, J.T. Fetter, Oct 10, 1972, chain drive for a tilting vehicle
3698502 180/215 180/41 188/176 188/329 280/62 280/282 Stablized Three-Wheeled Vehicle, P.C. Patin, Oct 17, 1972, 1F three-wheeler with "a device sensitive to resultant of weight and centrifugal force"
3707199 180/190 180/196 280/6.154 Recreational Vehicle, A.J. Gerich, Dec 26, 1972, banking vehicle that may or may not have wheels, described as especially useful for snow/ice
3712404 180/212 37/907 172/406 172/421 180/41 180/53.4 180/306 180/311 280/6.155 280/124.128 280/783 280/798 Hillside Tractor, K.H. Walquist, Jan 23, 1973 This is a tractor, not a highway vehicle to be used on the sides of hills without overturning
3729210 280/124.109 280/93.515 280/124.136 Suspension System for Vehicles, R.J. Cunningham, Apr 24, 1973,  mechanism uses 'subframes' to keep wheels vertical at all times to that the tires will have the most traction.
3746118 180/210 280/124.103 280/267 D12/110 Three-Wheeled Vehicle with Passenger Banking, E.J. Altorfer, July 17, 1973, 3-wheeled vehicle with powered lean
3781031 280/62 180/210 D12/110 D12/112 Three Wheeled Vehicles having Static and Dynamic Equilibrium, P. Patin, Dec 25, 1973 seems to be a 1F design three-wheeler perhaps tilt controlled by a pendulum device
3792748 180/41 180/282 280/6.154 280/6.155 280/124.112 Anti Overturning Implement Vehicle, J.W. Regier, Feb 19, 1974, depicted as as a riding lawn mower which can negoiate sideways on slopes without overturning
3820809 280/5.509 280/683 280/685 Body Tilting Mechanism, J.A. Blonar, June 28, 1974, could be applied to more than 3 wheels, a tilt control device that may use hydraulics (but not based on sensors).
3880449 280/261 280/62 280/282 280/283 Tricycle, H. Wada, Apr 29, 1975, 1F1T Suzuki Motor Company depicted as human powered can tilt to inside of turn
3899037 180/6.48 180/41 280/6.156 280/43.23 280/638 Chassis Apparatus for All Terrain Vehicles, P.A. Yuker, Aug 12, 1975,  4-wheeled all-terrain-vehicle (off-road ) with adjustable track and inclination



Starting with 3931989 the USPTO has much more that just images allowing searching.


3931989 280/112 R,112 A,282,283 180/25 R,27 Connecting device for front and rear frame of tricycle, T. Nagamitsu, Jan 13, 1976, Daihatsu Motor Company 1F1T motorized scooter see 3583727 I read that Daihatsu bought the Ariel Three patent, perhaps this is one of their imporvements for the 'Diahatsu Hello' scooter. It is for a 'connecting device' of the ront/rear sections and seems to purposefully restrict lean with rubber damping instead of the Ariel's metal torsion bars Calls:
2221196 Nov., 1940 Klavik 280/112.
2819093 Jan., 1958 Geiser 280/112.
2878032 Mar., 1959 Hawke 280/112.
3504934 Apr., 1970 Wallis 280/282.
3583727 Jun., 1971 Wallis 280/283.
3698502 Oct., 1972 Patin 280/282.
3937486 280/263,269,270,277,284,285,286,288,62,92,93,87 R,1.202,1.203,1.204 Tip over control for three wheeled vehicles, A.W. Weiters,Feb 10, 1976 Toy, looks like a conventional high seat child's trike with 1 front wheel that has pedals, but leans by handlebars
3938609 180/27 280/112 R,112 A,111 267/57Tricycle, Y. Kensaku, Feb 17, 1976, Daihatsu Motor Company see 3931989
3958814 280/267,269,261,282,112 A Three wheeled vehicle, Smith 2F3T depicted as pedalled hpv (bicycle)
3964563 180/27,41 280/112 A,6 R,6.1,6.11 A.D. Carling 1F3T depicted as an enclosed motorcycle "vehicle dips inwardly"
3976302 280/6.154; 180/41; 280/124.112; 280/400; 301/125, Pivoting axle system for terrain vehicles, S.O. Hammarstrand, Augt 24, 1976, pivoting axle system for an articulated tractor
3995875 280/282,283,87 R,111,112,87.04 R,87.04 A,11.19, Tricycle. H. Wada, Suzuki Motor Company see 3880449
4003443 180/217; 180/361; 280/104, Multiple wheel motorcycle suspension and drive syste, G.N. Boughers, Jan 18, 1977 1F3T narrow track
4006916 280/282; 180/215; 188/140A; 188/190; 403/84, Lockable articulation, P. Patin, Feb 8, 1977,
4020914 180/210; 180/15; 280/267, Stabilized three-wheeled vehicle, W. Trautwein, May 3, 1977, motorcycle that tilts by foot pedals
4036506 280/22.1, Tiltable sled, R. Scheib, July 19, 1977,  This is a tilting sled, it has no wheels.
4045048 280/278; 280/221; 280/293, C.C. Irwin, Aug 30, 1977, 3-wheel tilting scooter (modern small wheels) GM Toy
4046211 180/41; 180/215; 280/6.156, Wheel-support structures for vehicles, C.D. Allen, Sep inward tilting based on handlebar rotation 6, 1977 see 3964563
4050710 Flaig depiction could have 3 or more wheels
4050711 GM Toy Denzer, General Motors Toy which combines concepts of skateboard and roller skates with handlebars
4050713 GM Toy
4064957 Parham "three-wheel motorcycle" for many passengers, uses hydraulics
4065144 Winchell, General Motors 1F3TNL Stabilized with foot pedals. Depicted as enclosed motorized vehicle.
4065146 GM Toy
4071261 GM Toy
4072325 Bright 2F3T seems to use a "pendulum" to control lean automatically
4087101 Toy
4087104 GM Toy
4087106 GM Toy
4088199 Trautwein 2F3TNL depicted as a motorcycle which uses foot pedals to help with lean control
4126322 Mika depicted as a 2FAL three-wheeled vehicle for negoiating sideways on slopes without overturning and described as having automatic lean control
4123079 GM Toy
4132435 Wilson 2F3TNL steering determines the lean angle regardless of speed
4133551 GM Toy
4159128 Blaine mechanism for "tilting the outside wheel at a greater angle than the inside wheel in the direction of the turn in order to automatically compensate for the effects of lateral forces"
4159752 Kanno, Yamaha motor company. 1F drivetrain motor noncentered placement, not certain if leans
4165093 GM Toy
4198072 Toy Hopkins
4209072 Orlandea Deere company (similar to Calleja, Boughers) large construction machine
4281844 Jackman Toy
4283074 Tidwell many passenger vehicle
4316520 Yamamoto, Honda motor company. 1F2TNL seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream to drive both rear wheels to avoid torque steer
4325565 GM Toy
4340125 Honda Stream/ Gyro/ Canopy ? 1F1TNL
4351410 Townsend 1F or 2F vehicle with powered automatic lean using a parallelogram
4356876 Honda Stream park-lock
4359231 Mulcahy Toy with steering controlled by leaning 1F
4360224 Sato, Yamaha motor company 2F3TNL
4368796 Patin tilt control apparatus
4375293 Solbes 2F3T narrow track (refs Boughers)
4385770 Mitchell leaning sidecar motorcycle
4408776 Randolph 2F3TNL unusual idea- back wheel pivots from side to side to change back wheel location.
4421194 Kawasaki, Honda motor co 1F1LNT pivot point assembly drawing depiction looks like the Stream/Gyro
4423795 Winchell, General Motors 1F1LNT apparently this is the GM Lean Machine which was published in Road & Track January 1983, pp 80B,C,D
4424877 Kawasaki , Honda motor co. 1F1LNT looks like development of Gyro/Stream
4429760 Koizumi , Honda motor co. 1F1LNT looks like development of Gyro/Stream
4432561 Feikema Toy
4437535 Winchell, General Motors see 4423795
4448436 Ohzono, Honda motor co. park lock perhaps for Gyro/Stream
4451064 Perkins 1F1LNT depicted as human pedal powered, seems to focus on chain drive mechanism
4453616 Porter, Yamaha motor company. allows for 'slight' tilting of the frame by the rider
4469188 Mita, Honda motor company, seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream in that the motor is situated so that it is not unsprung weight
4469344 Coil, 2F3T steering controlled lean, apparently regardless of any factor except steering
4470611 Duphily not certain if this intends to make a leaning vehicle
4477097 Hayes leaning motorcycle sidecar
4484648 Jephcott, 2F1TAL This is the machine of which there were very brief articles in Popular Science July 1980 p95 and November 1989 p63. see also
4487429 Ruggles depicted as 4 wheeled automobile with objective of keeping vehicle level in curves, not compensating for full lateral force on passengers. Claims to be more simple and less expensive than others.
4497502 Forbes, Huffy Corp. bicycle company. 1F3TNL depicted as a recumbent human pedalled vehicle steered by leaning
4526392 Berkstresser depicted as recumbent human pedalled vehicle with steering by lean
4534439 Shimazaki, Honda motor company park lock perhaps for the development of the Gyro/Stream
4540192 Shelton Toy
4541501 Kawasaki, Honda motor company. looks like a development of the Gyro/Stream to independent rear suspension
4546997 Smyers 2F3TAL This is the Mother Earth News 3VG which was described in that magazine Sept/Oct, Nov/Dec 1983. magazine founder Shuttlesworth is listed as coinventor. see also 4600216
4550926 MacIsaac this is depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile as a wheel leveling device to maintain tire contact through turns
4560026 Yanagisawa, Honda motor company. seems to be an improved park lock for the Gyro/Stream
4572535 Stewart 1F1TNL depicted as pedalled human powered front wheel drive, steering controlled with body lean
4580802 Herman Toy
4592441 Marier, Yamaha motor company, 1F1TNL depicted as a motorized off-road vehicle
4600216 Burkholder see 4546997
4624469 Bourne 2F3T 'simplified driver controlled lean' attempts to compensate for lateral forces
4632413 Fujita, Honda motor company. Depicted with both 3 and 4 wheels. It may be that the vehicle leans according to steering without regard to speed.
4634137 Cocksedge 2F3T human powered with rear wheel drive by chain
4647067 Paquette Depictions of both 3 and 4 wheeled vehicles. The 3 wheeled vehicle, especially on sheet 2 of 7 is depicted as having a pivoting yoke, realtively narrow track, off-road vehicle
4650213 Fujita, Honda motor company. see 4632413
4666018 Shibuya, Honda motor company. Seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream. the focus is a damper which varies its strength according to leaning speed
4660853 Jephcott see 4484648
4678053 Watanabe, Honda Motor Company. looks like developments of the Gyro/Stream including reduction of unsprung weight of the rear shock absorber and other potential improvements
4697663 Trautwein 2F3TNL, lean controlled with foot pedals. Depicted as a scooter
4703824 Irimajiri, Honda motor company. Depicted as a 2F enclosed 'carlike' vehicle. Cambers by moving the single wheel from side to side.
principle similar to 4408776
4717164 Levavi. 2F3TNL not certain if machine has speed differeniated lean control, but supposedly automatic lean. Depicted as an enclosed two person human powered vehicle
4740004 McMullen. 2F3TNL parallelogram, depicted as pedal bicycle
4789173 Lofgren. 1F3TNL leaned by moving the front wheel to one side. depicted as a recumbent, front wheel drive pedalled human powered
4854603 Scaduto "automotive" chassis/suspension intended to eliminate camber, could be applied to 3 wheeler
4877102 Stewart depicted as 1F3TNL all terrain vehicle
4887829 Prince 1F3TNL rocking yoke rear suspension, depicted as all terrain vehicle
4903857 Klopfenstein 2F3TNL depicted as a pedalled bicycle. Does not vary lean with speed.
4909538 Langton ( looks like a wheelchair sized vehicle though that is never mentioned- purpose? )
4921263 Patin 'inclinable multiwheel vehicle'
4948166 Kaneko, Nissan motor company. 'vehicle height regulating system'
4974863 Patin. 'stabilization device for an inclinable vehicle'
4998596 Miksitz 1F3T front wheel drive by hydraulics. Lean might be controlled by hydraulics.
5040812 Patin 'inclinable vehicle with 3 or more wheels' includes a clutch for lean control
5116069 Miller 1F3TAT lean is motorized hydraulic. depicted as enclosed narrow vehicle
5238258 Michaud leaning motorcycle sidecar
5240267 Owsen 1F1T depicted as pedalled front wheel drive bicycle
5437467 Patin stabilization device for vehicle with 3 or more wheels
5580089 Kolka camber control system for automobiles
5611555 Vidal 1F3TNL depicted as a motorcycle
5678835 Sung 1F1TNL may not differentiate lean angle to speed, depicted as pedalled bicycle
5730453 Owsen 1F1TNL focus is chain drive to rear
5732962 Mageren depicted as an automotive body tilting strategy
5762351 Soohoo inclinable vehicle depicted as human powered by pedals
2F3TAL with computer control lean and manual overide
5765846 Braun, Diamler-Benz motor company. described as a 'curve leaning vehicle' this apparently is the patent for the Mercedes Lifejet
5772224 Tong vehicle tilting system to improve passenger comfort
5927424 Van Den Brink tilt control device, all hydraulic
RE32031 Winchell General Motors 1985 see 4423795
RE32681 Randolph see 4408776
----------------------------------------
7571787 Headlight
                    mounting arrangement, Harley-Davidson, Aug 11,
                    2009,
7571787 Headlight mounting arrangement, Harley-DavidsonAug 11, 2009,
Tilting 3-wheel

7967306 Tilting wheeled vehicle, Robert Mighell, Jun 28, 2011, 280/124.103, 180/41, 280/124.141, 180/210 - add-on front end for motorcycle
8662228 Free-to-lean three-wheeled passenger vehicle, power plant controller and body therefor, Green Lite Motors Corp, Mar 4, 2014, 180/210

EP Patents - European Patent Office (EPO) images back to 1979/80

4230 Patin 1982 device for controlling lean
20835 Jephcott 1985, discusses a variety of theoretical chassis designs
142505 ? Geerlof 1985 (no image available)
153521 Jephcott 1985 especially concerns tilt control hydraulics and actuation
205419 Jephcott 1986 database says, "no image available"
247093 James 1987 titled, "Self-Stabilizing Cambering Vehicle", but there is no image available from the patents database
251906 Patin 1991. tilt control device has some mathematical formula mixed in the French language section
369863 Patin 1993. "Stabilising device for inclinable vehicle" depicted as an enclosed 1F3T
557449 Fought 1996. may be a tilting three-wheeler for handicapped people
560670 Patin 1995."Vehicle Stabilization Device"
606191 Vidal 1997. 1F2TNL
626307 Doveri. 1998. depicted as enclosed tilting trike
686112 Nehrke 1996. 1F3T appears to be a device to connect a chain drive to a rear wheel drive system
796193 Van Den Brink, tilt control device
900713 Holzel, Mercedes company may concern the LifeJet
941198 Aregger same as WO 9824681

WO Patents - World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

9200217 Vendrami, 1992. similar to GM Toy US patent 4045048
9534459 Van Den Brink, 1995.
9721583 Muccio, 1997. 1F3T
9727071 Geiser, 1997. 1F3T depicted as enclosed motorcycle sized vehicle
9843872 Tomaselli. depicted as enclosed, says has been tested
9824681 Arregger. same as EP941198
9849023 Braun, 1998. Mercedes LifeJet? emergency back-up system
9912795 Ammon, 1999. Mercedes LifeJet? roll control system
9924308 Van Den Brink. tilt control device
9941136 Ficcadenti, 1999. 2F3T

JP Japanese Patents

3109191Tanaka, 1991. Front frame tilted electric tricycle
5039073 Matsuura, Honda motor co. 1993. seems to be a battery powered trike maybe 1F1TNL
5085451 Uchiyama, Suzuki motor company 1993. seems to use a double backbone to tilt a 1F
5008782 Sato, Kubota motor company 1993. looks like a 1F3TNL
5139357 Kamiya, Honda motor co. 1993. 2F3TNL
5155372 Muamatsu, Suzuki motor co. 1F
5155373 see 5155372
5178251 Hikichi, Honda motor company, 1993. might be all wheels leaning, said to be self erecting when stopped. depicted as motorcycle sized vehicle with windshield and roof
7165127 Murakami Isao 1995 "Purpose: To tilt a vehicle body to the right or left relative to a traveling device." depicted as a one-person enclosed vehicle.
9207856 Ishihara, 1997. 1F3T
11011372 Murakami Isao 1999 "swing small-sized three-wheeled vehicle"

Section added 14 April 2002

veh tt gen Patents List doc. By Mitch Casto . If anyone uses information from this and publishes it in any way, please give me credit.

United States Patents

Note: these first patent numbers do not have any content on the www patents databases. They were found in other sources.
87713   Velocipede, 1869 Sorrell an hpv TT with treadle drive. Rider sits in recumbent position.
102322 Velocipede, 1870 Rhodes riding Toy horse tricycle, does not certain if  intended to lean
228996 Velocipede, 1880 bicycle or tricycle hinged in center for steering and leaning
387631 Velocipede, 1888 Duryea ' ladies' tricycle, not clear if intended to lean
530552 Vehicle, 1894 Ridge hpv 1f2t all wheels tilting tt based on a diamond framed ' safety ' type bicycle
580587 Carrier Velocipede, 1897 Warman seems to be a safety type diamond frame bicycle converted to a 2F trike with a front platform for carrying loads. Not certain if intended to tilt
627523 Motor Vehicle, 1897 Pennington. Three-wheeled. Maybe be a powered or unpowered vehicle. Depicted as a narrow bicycle/ motorcycle vehicle.  Intended to " increase the stability of the vehicle in going around curves. " " The object of the invention is to throw the center of gravity of the vehicle or the passengers or load, or both, toward the center of the circular arc described by the vehicle, so as to counteract the centrifugal force operation in the opposite direction."
776078 Running Gear for Vehicles, 1904 Murphy all wheels tilting 4 wheeled carriage
880025 Runing Gear or Suspension Frame for Vehicles, 1908 Herman 4 wheeled vehicle for uneven terrain. Has suspension. Intended to be motorized with description of drive train unaffected by tilting.
932333 Vehicle, 1909 Schmelz 4 wheeled car intended to counter lateral forces by leaning. Does not seem to differentiate lean according to speed. Includes steering .
962258 Vehicle, 1910 Rockwell tilting body chassis
1026851 Runing Gear for Motot Vehicles, 1912 Dearing 4 wheeled chassis designed to be " pivotally yielding "
1069788 Motor Cycle Side Car, 1913 Johnson banking sidecar for motorcycle
1088189 Wagon, 1914 Thompson single wheel on primitive chassis . This wheel can swivel from side to side.
1094777 Bicycle Side Car, 1914 Buckland which permits leaning. Uses a parallelogram which is spring-loaded. Shock absorbing springs shown on upright wheel holding forks.
1104534 Automobile Wheel Controlling Means, 1914 Mitchell depicted as a steerable wheel pair. Does not seem to differentiate lean according to speed
1238752 Tractor, 1917 Flory tractor for slopes which uses lever arms and geared mechanism
1252643 Tractor, 1914 Anderson tractor for slopes has four wheels . Unusual design, tilting mechanism is an arch bridging the wheels with rollers gripping the arch.
1283942 Steering Mechanism for Three Wheeled Vehicles, 1918 Spanovic Tilting Three-wheeler . Safety diamond frame bicycle type frame based. Could be either human powered or motorized. 2F with rack and pinion steering. Includes front suspension. Two front wheels each have own fork and tilting mechanism includes a high mounted parallelogram. Does not seem to vary lean according to speed.
1316232 Driving Axle, 1919 Haupt tractor mechanism for leveling on slopes. Depicted as wheel pair. Geared mechanism.
1321258 Tractor, 1919 three-wheeled  tractor which moves single front wheel from side to side
1332042 Motorcycle, 1920 Johnston , motorcycle sidecar which leans
1353393 Motor Vehicle, 1920 Haupt tractor mechanism for leveling on slopes. Depicted as wheel pair. Seems to use a differential.
1385417 Tractor, 1921 Wooley Tilting Three-wheeler with one front wheel doesn't seem to regulate lean according to speed.
1423002 Stablizing Means for Suspended Vehicles, 1922 Mercier Depicted as wheel pair. Powered by any suitable source, electric, hydraulic, etc. . Pendulum controlled.
1451194 Tractor, 1923 Adams tractor mechanism for leveling on slopes. Rear mechanism is gear controlled wheel pair.  Front is parallelogram natural acting wheel pair.
1451627 Tractor Spreader, 1923 Munson tractor mechanism for leveling on slopes. Uses a rocking yoke.
1457025 Lumber Carrier, 1923 Gerlinger lumber carrier which 'straddles' the load, probably does not lean , may self-level lumber, not clear
1556531 Vehicle Steering Mechanism, 1925 McMillan tilting vehicle, depicted as wheel pair. Uses parallelogram. Not clear if steering is activated separate to tilting. Transverse leaf spring suspension. Seems to be intended for automobiles.
1565817 Velocipede, 1925 Schimmel hinged hpv
1574691 Attachment for Harvesters, 1926 Ragsdale " Attachment for Harvesters " . " so that when travelling on hilly ground, the body of the machine will be automatically leveled. " Uses a shifting weight.
1623726 Motor Vehicle, 1927 Herds depicted as a three-wheeled vehicle. Main feature is a single-wheel end which swings from side-to-side when turning. Single wheel is mounted on a double-sided swingarm. " Turning said pivot member will now force the wheel to either side of the chassis and therby displace the center of weight of the vehicle towards the center of the circle in which the vehicle may be moving, thus producing a stabilizing effect."
1668368 Steering Device for Motor Vehicles, 1928 Herds single-wheel end which swings from side-to-side when turning. With drag link steering and leaf spring suspension.
1725188 Wheeled Vehicle, 1929 Heidenstrom body banking chassis depiced with four wheels.
1817478 Vehicle, 1931 Cook depicted as four wheeled passenger car. Pivot wheel steering plus tilting axles.
1821271 Automatic Stablizer, 1931 Musgrove Harvesting machine with " automatic stabilizer "
1877520 Combination Harverter Threasher, 1932 McGregor tractor mechanism for leveling on slopes. Uses lever arms and geared mechanism.
RE21605 Body Suspension for Vehicles of All Kinds, 1933 Kolbe body tilting mechanism. Depicted as passenger car.
1979192 Suspension System for Motor Road Vehicles, 1934 Burney depicted as a four wheeled passenger car. Rear engine.
2015700 Motor Vehicle, 1935 Wagner / Mercedes Benz Depicted as rear engined passenger car.
2029735 Automotive Body and Frame, 1936 Minott depicted as four-wheeled automobile that tilts all wheels. Seems to use a rocking yoke, hydraulics and a geared mechanism . Not certain if lean is varied with speed.
2045562 Banking Device for Vehicles, 1936 Adaskin depicted as a four-wheeled chassis. Uses hydraulics and a worm gear.
2048866 Antiroll Device, 1936 Hunt "Anti-Roll Device" uses a clutch
2053294 Ankle Tread Tractor, MacEachen tractor. Has separate control to adjusting tilting separate from steering wheel.
2059419 Wheeled Vehicle, Tuft 4 wheel tilter, depicted as a bare chassis. Intended for use on traliers, wagons, etc. on rough and uneven terrain.  May have only body, but not wheel suspension - not certain.
2076786 Body Suspension for Vehicles of All Kinds, 1937 Kolbe tilting body chassis . depicted as 4 wheeled passenger car.
2094541 Steering Arrangement for Motor Vehicles, 1937 Kolbe depicted as a four-wheeled passenger car which tilts . Does not seem to vary lean with speed. May be that the steers and leans through same mechanism.
2105553 chassis of Vehicles, 1938 Schroter et al. depicted with 4 wheels. A mechanical suspension with a rocking mechanism which allows a vehicle body to remain level in uneven terrain.
2116027 Motor Vehicle, 1938 Kolbe depicted as a four-wheeled passenger car intended to tilt for turns. Seems to use a pendulum effect for the whole body like the current Italian Pendolino trains - body banking only ?
2111983 Wheel Arragement for Streamline Vehicles, 1938 Massey 4 wheels in diamond pattern, depicted as teardrop body passenger car. (Looks Like Fuller car?)
2115256 Vehicle Front Wheel banking Aparatus, 1938 Eckenrode depicted as wheel spindle which permits normal pivoting for steering as well as tilting.
2121720 Control for the Movement of Vehicle Bodies, 1938 Wedelstaedt moves body from side to side. Depicted as a wagon.
2126642 Ride Stabilizer, 1938 Jones "Ride Stabilizer" which moves a dead weight from side to side
2137947 Hydraulic Leavelizer for Automobiles, 1936?  Moore " Hydraulic Levelizer for Automobiles " " ... will automatically tilt the automobile body towards the inside of the curve ...."
2144112 Land Vehicle, 1939 Ingildsen seems to be body banking only
2150199 Steering Gear for Vehicles, 1939 Weston depicted as a steerable wheel pair for 4-wheeled passenger car.
2152938 Vehicle banking Mechanism, 1939 Welch  Body banking mechanism, number of wheels not specified, depicted as pair of wheels side by side. Not drive mechanism depicted. Lean controlled manually by driver. Mechanism requires power to lean.
2165617 Combined Vehicle-leveling, Turn-banking and Shock-absorbing Mechanism for Motor Vehicles, 1939 Oliveira hydraulic mechanism .
2168108 Automobile Vehicle, 1939 Bunau-Varilla depicted as 4 wheeled car
2206970 Motor Vehicle Chassis, 1938 Megow. Depicted as a side by side wheel pair. Total number of vehicle wheel not specified. Drawing show wheels pivoting to sides. Does provide for transmitting power to wheels.
2208600 Vehicle Steering Device, 1940 Ronning Steerable narrow track front wheel pair depicted on tractor. Uses a rocking yoke . Includes suspension . Has different versions. Both wheels turn together, altering the wheel base which is not so desirable.
2208628 Railway Vehicle, 1940 Breer tilting train
2216930 Stablizing Mechanism for Vehicles, 1940 Altemus Tilting four-wheeler . Depicted as common differential wheel pair without independent suspension. Uses hydraulics. This may be a patent related to a racing vehicle which Jay Baldwin mentioned as the 'Altemus Autobanker' which may have been running in the 1940s / 1950s. According to Mr. Baldwin the Autobanker was not successful because it had problems controlling the wheels' forces.
2221196 Front Axle of Read-MotoredAutomobiles, 1940 Klavik 4 wheeled auto which in the patent description says that purpose of the invention is to counter the discomfort of lateral forces on the passengers in curves. Looks like the lean control was operated directly by the driver and was hydraulically assisted.
2224408 Device for Wheel Suspension, 1940 Peglow  Depicted as a four-wheeld chassis. Uses cams at each suspension unit to raise of lower the unit.
2232549 Truck Construction, 1941 McNamara tries to solve wear problem of wheel leaning devices of some farm equipment
2234676 Automotive Vehicle, 1941 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces
2242584 Automotive Vehicle, 1941 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces
RE21840 Motor Vehicle, 1941 Kolbe body tilting mechanism.
2247749 Stabilization Device for Terrestrial Vehicles, 1941 De Venel "Stabilizing Device for Terestrial Vehicles" uses electrical devices such as an electromagnetic shock absorber. May include an early ' computer ' ?  Depicted as a four-wheeled passenger car.
2260102 Automobile Vehicle, 1941 Freret depicted as a ' double track vehicle'.  Varies lean with speed. Lean is motorized. Uses hydraulics. Might allow power drive to wheels via differential.
2271505 Automotive Vehicle, 1942 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces.
2278081 Leveling Mechanism, 1942 Kramer " Leveling Device " farm equipment which uses hydraulics
2279120 Automobile Chassis, 1942 Hurley depicted as a four-wheeled passenger car. Uses a very large pendulum to compress springs and lean the vehicle. Depicted as a very low height vehicle, which is unusual for the time. Some business connection to Altemus .
2280044 1942 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces.
2341726 1944 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces.
2349175 1944 Kolbe depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile with a body that banks when subjected to lateral forces.
2353503 1944 Rost depicted as an automobile with either 3 or 4 wheels. One device is a swiveling wheel.  Hydraulics included, pendulum activated.
2387249 1945 Eddington depicted as a four-wheeled passenger car. Uses hydraulics and seems to be pendulum controlled.
2417526 1947 Steins Tilting Train
2458400  1949 Milliken depicted as an offroad tractor . device levels the vehicle on slopes. depicted with 4 wheels but would work with 3. Includes chains in the drive sytem. Is interesting that it does provide tilting wheels while allowing power drive to both wheels individually.
2474471 1949 Dolan Tilting Train
2473519 1949 Gillitzer " Poise Mounting for Racing Cars "4 wheeled.  solid axles are raised and lowered
2474946 1949 Kinslow Toy skateboard scooter . four wheels.
2489968 1949 Lyon vehicle suspension allows banking "relates to automobiles, railway cars and the like".  Seeks to give a wider range of banking with a low c of g
2490719 1949 Tank " Automobile Stabilizer " a hydraulic system. Depicted as four-wheeled chassis.
2493817 1950 Hare  Tilting Three-wheeler , depicted as motorcycle/ scooter .  2 front wheels. Rear engine and drive.
2521986 1950 Lips Tilting Three-wheeler. Narrow enclosed 'streamlined'.  2F3T, natural lean, rear motor Netherlands. Inventor seems to understand that the vehicle should vary lean according to speed, but it is not clear how his mechanism accomplished this.
2551314 1950 1951 Burton Tractor 3-wheeled . Two rear wheels use lever swing arms. Includes chains in drive system.  Seems to be gear driven tilt system.
2583250 1952 Ball Depicted as an offroad wheeled equipment ( tractor ) with applications as a leveling device. Lever swing arms. Uses hydraulics.
2609884 1952 Garcia-Camba, depicted as a passenger car, number of wheels not specified,  hydraulic based banking. May have a variety of tilting devices.
2623758 1952 Cruz  Stabilizer device for a variety of vehicles. Uses pistons at each wheel to raise and lower.
2663266 1953 Baldwin. mining equipment (rail car?) which might bank . Titled as "Rocking Axle Structure for a Mining Device"
2696387 1954 Nordin number of wheels not specified. directly mentions banking. depicted as both a child's toy tricycle and a passenger car.  Seems to use unusual curved lever arms and hydraulics.
2702196 1955 Gamaunt, motorcycle sidecar which leans
2757938 1956 Crowder titled, "Hydraulic Motor Vehicle Stabilizer" number of wheels not specified. device uses 'any power steering pump' to automatically bank the vehicle through curves
2767800 1956 steerable tractor wheel and drive
2771145 1956 foldable 3 wheeled motorcycle
2787473 1957 Chiodo depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile and titled, " Hydraulic Fluid System for Stabilizing Motor Vehicles When Rounding a Curve". Drawings show the tilting mechanism to be hydraulic pistons on the ends of the axles. There are also drawings and descriptions of hydraulic circuits and a powered pump for controling the tilting. Claimed to be speed responsive. Includes special tires with "anitskid" edges.
2787474 1957 Brueder titled "Anti-Rolling Device for Vehicles", basically a hydro-pneumatic suspension, depicted as a pair of opposing wheels on a common axle line. Uses hydraulics. Does not seem to have an accompanying control device, but focuses on a pump and devices claimed to be capable of leveling the vehicle.
2791440 1957 Guidobaldi " Road Vehicle Turning Inwardly in Curves "
2815222 "Tricycle Driving and Banking Arrangement"
2819093 1958 Geiser. 2 wheeled motorcycle with hinged chassis for steering, does not bank.
2878032 1959 Hawke Very primitive 1F1T tilting three-wheeler. Tilting mechanism is simple backbone tube within a tube. "Three-wheeled Motorcycle with Rockable Rear Wheel Assembly"
2887322 1959 DeMonge (volumes 742-3 missing)
2920636 1960 Gassner vehicle for travelling sideways on slopes, has "control valve pendulum activated" hydraulics
2936034 1960 Van Der Lely Tractor which probably banks
2954833 1960 Davidson Tractor for use on slopes uses parallelogram
2960941 1960 Li  "Y.T." Li who has 3277840 also . Did reported work at MIT narrow track TT
2961254 1960 Muller (volume 760 missing )
2967062 1961 D'Avigdor "Tilting Control Apparatus for a Vehicle"
2978255 1961 Rosenkrands "Independent Front Wheel Suspension"
3008729 1961 Muller/ Daimler Benz "Tilting Control Apparatus for Motor Vehicles"
3014731 1961 Dworak " Ski Vehicle "
3016247 1962 Eltze/Daimler Benz "Curve Stabilization Arrangement"
3089710 1963 Fiala variety of mechanisms some of which use hydraulics
3123375 1964 Courtney "Articulated Ski Device"
3137513 1964 Marot suspension system which compensate for centrifugal forces
3154164 1964 Shaw et al. "Off-Highway Tractor" uses hydraulics to level itself on uneven terrain
3184867 1965 Symmank  self-leveling " Earth Moving Machine "
3198277 1965 Trivero leveling earth compacting machine
3203706 1965 Boyden ski riding toy steered by leaning
3237961 1966 McMullen 1F3T depicted as child's trike leans when handlebars turn
3277840 1966 Li  Yao Tzu Li 1966, 1F3T narrow track motorcycle based machine with automated lean. It is likely the later reported in work at MIT: Li, Y.T. , Meiry, J.L., Roesler, W.G.,  An Active Roll Mode Suspension System for Ground Vehicles , Journal of Basic Engineering, pp. 167-174, 1968.
3285623 1966 Winsen may not cancel centrifugal forces, but only level. Uses pendulum , hydraulics and torsion bars.
3306390 1967 Jamme 4-wheel steered and driven chassis with each wheel on an arm to adjust the track width
3309097 1967 Seeber offroad chassis for leveling running on slopes. Uses hydraulics and a pendulum.
3311388 1967 Ryan child's 3-wheeled riding toy with 2 rear wheels which lean inwardly in turns. May be the patent for the toy Mattel X-15.
3313555 1967 Reimer tractor for running on uneven ground
3392991 1968 Ryan child's riding toy with 3 wheel steering. 2 back wheels swivel on common axle which alters the wheelbase and lean toward inside of turn.
3447623 1969  Hott three-wheeled with 2 front wheels able to lean according to speed. depicted as motorscooter.
3480098 1969 Ward hydraulic leveling control depicted as a tractor
3483844           Trautwein TT ?
3490786 1969 Ravenel ( Citroen Co. ? ) hydraulic system for antiroll in autos
3504934 1970 Wallis who is credited as the designer of the 1F1T "Ariel Three" motorized scooter which was produced in Britain by BSA (see also 3583727 )
3506079 1970 Madler offroad vehicle articulated suspension
3532351 1970 Kaufmann three-wheeler with 2 rear wheels which swivel together to alter wheelbase to turn
3539196 1970 Fleming three-wheeled chassis which moves the single front wheel from side to side altering the lateral position of the single wheel.
3561778 1968 La Brie  HPV "Three Wheeled Vehicle" which allows banking. Two front wheels. depicted as human powered.
3572456 1971 Healy three-wheeler with 2 rear wheels. Uses a parallelogram. Depicted as a motorcycle.
3575251 1971 Trautwein ski-vehicle able to level itself on side-slopes
3583727 1971 Wallis who is credited as the designer of the 1F1T BSA "Ariel Three" motorized scooter which was produced in Britain by BSA
3583507          Trautwein TT ?
3595929 1971 Rolland 1F1T depicted as one person golf cart
3608925 1971 Murphy early electronically controlled active suspension
3669468 1972 Rich three-wheeler with 2 rear wheels on a common axle that pivots to alter the wheelbase to steer.
3561778 1971 La Brie, 2F3TNL human powered, pedalled chain drive
3572456 1971 Healy (Hedly?) titled "Bankable Tricycle Vehicle"
3583727 1971 Wallis see also 3504934
3601213 1971 Patin
3645558 1973 McMullen banking 3-wheeler 1FNL? helps teach how to ride a bicycle without falling
3669468 1973 Rich Toy
3689108 1973 Blonar "Body Tilting Device"
3696681 1973 Fetter chain drive for a tilting vehicle
3698502 1973 Patin  1F three-wheeler with  "a device sensitive to resultant of weight and centrifugal force"
3707199 1973 Gerich  banking vehicle that may or may not have wheels, described as especially useful for snow/ice
3712404 1973 Walquist  This is a tractor, not a highway vehicle to be used on the sides of hills without overturning
3729210 1973 Cunningham  mechanism uses 'subframes' to keep wheels vertical at all times
3746118 1973 Altorfer 3 wheeler with 2 front wheels that do not bank, but rear of the vehicle banks for turns. powered lean
3776353? 1973 Roth
3781031 1973 Patin  seems to be a 1F design three-wheeler perhaps tilt controlled by a pendulum device
3792748 1974 Regier  depicted as as a riding lawn mower which can negoiate sideways on slopes without overturning
3806141 1974 Janer hillside tractor
3820809 1974 Blonar  could be applied to more than 3 wheels, a tilt control device that may use hydraulics
3880449 1975 Wada  1F1T Suzuki Motor Company depicted as human powered
3899037 1975 Yuker  4-wheeled all-terrain-vehicle (off-road )
3931989 1976 Nagamitsu  Daihatsu Motor Company 1F1T motorized scooter see 3583727 It is said that Daihatsu bought the Ariel Three patent; perhaps this is one of their imporvements for the 'Diahatsu Hello' scooter. It is for a 'connecting device' of the front/rear sections and seems to purposefully restrict lean with rubber damping instead of the Ariel's metal torsion bars
3937486 1976 Weiters Toy, looks like a conventional high seat child's trike with 1 front wheel that has pedals, but leans by handlebars
3938609 1976 Kensaku, Daihatsu Motor Company see 3931989
3958814 1976 Smith 2F3T  depicted as pedalled hpv (bicycle)
3964563 1976 Carling 1F3T  depicted as an enclosed motorcycle
3976302 1976 Hammarstrand  pivoting axle system for a tractor
3992029 1976 Washizawa / Honda may be the foot propelled riding toy Honda sold around this time.
3995875 1976 Wada,  Suzuki Motor Company see 3880449
4003443 1976 Boughers  1F3T narrow track
4006916 1977 Patin locking device for articulated vehicle
4020914 1977 Trautwein  depicted as an enclosed vehicle
4036506 1977 This is a sled, it has no wheels.
4045048 1977 GM Toy
4046211  Carling 1977see 3964563
4050710 1977 Flaig depiction could have 3 or more wheels
4050711 1977 GM Toy Denzer, General Motors Toy which combines concepts of skateboard and roller skates with handlebars
4050713 1977 GM Toy
4054300 1977 Winchell / General Motors 1F Cambering vehicle with geared stabilizer
4064957 1977 Parham  "three-wheel motorcycle" for many passengers, uses hydraulics . Seats people side by side
4065144 1977 Winchell , General Motors 1F3TNL Stabilized with foot pedals. Depicted as enclosed motorized vehicle.
4065146 1978 GM Toy
4071261 1978 GM Toy
4072325 Bright  1978 2F3T seems to use a "pendulum" to control lean automatically
4076270 Winchell
4087101 1978 Toy
4087104 1978 GM Toy
4087106 1978 GM Toy
4087107 1978 Winchell
4087108 1978 Winchell
4088199 1978 Trautwein  2F3TNL depicted as a motorcycle which uses foot pedals to help with lean control
4088338 1978 Winchell
4126322 1978 Mika depicted as a 2FAL three-wheeled vehicle for negoiating sideways on slopes without overturning and described as having automatic lean control
4123079 1978 GM Toy
4132435 1979 Wilson  2F3TNL steering determines the lean angle regardless of speed
4133551 1980 GM Toy
4159128 1980 Blaine mechanism for "tilting the outside wheel at a greater angle than the inside wheel in the direction of the turn in order to automatically compensate for the effects of lateral forces"
4159752 1980 Kanno, Yamaha motor company. 1F drivetrain motor noncentered placement, not certain if leans
4165093 1980 GM Toy
4198072 1980 Toy Hopkins
4209072 1980 Orlandea  Deere company  large construction machine
4270811           Trautwein TT ?
4281844 1981 Jackman  Toy
4283074 1981 Tidwell many passenger vehicle
4316520 1982 Yamamoto, Honda motor company. 1F2TNL seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream to drive both rear wheels to avoid torque steer
D0264953 1982 Shimoyama , Honda motor company looks like Honda Stream/ Gyro
4325565 1982 GM Toy
4340125 1982 Honda Stream/ Gyro/ Canopy ? 1F1TNL
4351410 1982 Townsend 1F or 2F vehicle with powered automatic lean using a parallelogram
4353567 1982 Weldy 1F3TNL probably does not vary lean with speed
4356876 1982 Honda Stream park-lock
4359231 1982 Mulcahy Toy with steering controlled by leaning 1F
4360224 1982 Sato , Yamaha  motor company 2F3TNL
4368796 1983 Patin  tilt control apparatus
4375293 1983 Solbes 2F3T narrow track (refs Boughers)
4378133           Trautwein TT ?
4385770 1983 Mitchell  leaning sidecar motorcycle
4408776 1983 Randolph  2F3TNL unusual idea- back wheel pivots from side to side to change back wheel location. ( see also RE32681 )
4421194 1983 Kawasaki , Honda motor co 1F1LNL pivot point assembly drawing depiction looks like the Stream/Gyro
4423795 1984 Winchell, General Motors 1F1LNL apparently this is the GM Lean Machine which was published in Road & Track January 1983, pp 80B,C,D ( RE32031 Winchell General Motors 1985 )
4424877 1984 Kawasaki , Honda motor co. 1F1LNT looks like development of Gyro/Stream
4429760 1984 Koizumi , Honda motor co. 1F1LNT looks like development of Gyro/Stream
4432561 1984 Feikema HPV 1F lean to steer. Manufactured as the " Banana Peel ".
4437535 1984 Winchell , General Motors see 4423795
D0273186 1984 Bruning. Design patent for the General Motors Lean Machine low drag version body
4448436 1984 Ohzono ,  Honda motor co. park lock perhaps for Gyro/Stream
4451064 1984 Perkins  1F1LNT depicted as human pedal powered, seems to focus on chain drive mechanism
4453616 1984 Porter , Yamaha motor company. allows for 'slight' tilting of the frame by the rider
4469188 1984 Mita , Honda motor company, seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream in that the motor is situated so that it is not unsprung weight
4469344 1984 Coil , 2F3T steering controlled lean, apparently regardless of any factor except steering
4470611 1984 Duphily  not certain if this intends to make a leaning vehicle
4477097 1984 Hayes  leaning motorcycle sidecar
4484648 1984 Jephcott , 2F1TAL  This is the machine of which there were very brief articles in Popular Science  July 1980 p95 and November 1989 p63.  see also 4660853
4487429 1984 Ruggles depicted as 4 wheeled automobile with objective of keeping vehicle level in curves, not compensating for full lateral force on passengers. Claims to be more simple and less expensive than others.
4497502 1985 Forbes , Huffy Corp. bicycle company. 1F3TNL depicted as a recumbent human pedalled vehicle steered by leaning
4526392 1985 Berkstresser  depicted as recumbent human pedalled vehicle with steering by lean. This is probably the hpv called the Vacuum Velocipede.
4534439 1985 Shimazaki , Honda motor company park lock perhaps for the development of the Gyro/Stream
4540192 1985 Shelton Toy
4541501 1985 Kawasaki , Honda motor company. looks like a development of the Gyro/Stream to independent rear suspension
4546997 1985 Smyers  2F3TAL This is the Mother Earth News 3VG which was described in that magazine Sept/Oct, Nov/Dec 1983. magazine founder Shuttlesworth is listed as coinventor. see also 4600216
4550926 1985 MacIsaac  this is depicted as a 4 wheeled automobile as a wheel leveling device to maintain tire contact through turns
4560026 1985 Yanagisawa , Honda motor company. seems to be an improved park lock for the Gyro/Stream
4572535 1986 Stewart 1F1TNL depicted as pedalled human powered front wheel drive, steering controlled with body lean
4580802 1986 Herman Toy
4592441 1986 Marier , Yamaha motor company, 1F1TNL depicted as a motorized off-road vehicle
4600216 1986 Burkholder  see 4546997
4624469 1986 Bourne  2F3T 'simplified driver controlled lean' attempts to compensate for lateral forces
4632413 1986 Fujita , Honda motor company.  Depicted with both 3 and 4 wheels. It may be that the vehicle leans according to steering without regard to speed.
4634137 1987 Cocksedge 2F3T human powered with rear wheel drive by chain
4647067 1987 Paquette  Depictions of both 3 and 4 wheeled vehicles. The 3 wheeled vehicle, especially on sheet 2 of 7 is depicted as having a pivoting yoke, realtively narrow track, off-road vehicle
4650213 1987 Fujita ,  Honda motor company. see 4632413
4666018 1987 Shibuya , Honda motor company. Seems to be an improvement of the Gyro/Stream. the focus is a damper which varies its strength according to leaning speed
4660853 1987 Jephcott see 4484648
4678053 1987 Watanabe , Honda Motor Company. looks like developments of the Gyro/Stream including reduction of unsprung weight of the rear shock absorber and other potential improvements
4697663 1987 Trautwein 2F3TNL, lean controlled with foot pedals. Depicted as a scooter
4703824 1987 Irimajiri , Honda motor company. Depicted as a 2F enclosed 'carlike' vehicle. Cambers by moving the single wheel from side to side.  principle similar to 4408776
D0322049 1988 Doman; Trevor D., Articulated three wheel vehicle
4717164 1988 Levavi 2F3TNL HPV not certain if machine has speed differeniated lean control, but supposedly automatic lean. Depicted as an enclosed two person human powered vehicle
4735362  Trautwein TT ?
4740004 1988 McMullen 2F3TNL parallelogram, depicted as pedal bicycle
4789173 1988 Lofgren  1F3TNL HPV leaned by moving the front wheel to one side. depicted as a recumbent, front wheel drive pedalled human powered
4854603 1989 Scaduto "automotive" chassis/suspension intended to eliminate camber, could be applied to 3 wheeler
4877102 1989 Stewart depicted as 1F3TNL all terrain vehicle
4887829 1989 Prince 1F3TNL rocking yoke rear suspension, depicted as all terrain vehicle
4903857 1990 Klopfenstein  2F3TNL HPV depicted as a pedalled bicycle. Does not vary lean with speed.
4909538 1990 Langton  ( looks like a wheelchair sized vehicle though that is never mentioned- purpose? )
4921263 1990 Patin  'inclinable multiwheel vehicle'
4948166 1990 Kaneko Nissan motor company. 'vehicle height regulating system'
4974863 1990 Patin  'stabilization device for an inclinable vehicle'
4993733 1991 Eiler HPV  2F wheels on common axle which swivel together altering wheelbase to lean
4998596 1991 Miksitz  1F3T front wheel drive by hydraulics. Lean might be controlled by hydraulics.
5028064 1991 Johnson 2F hpv wheelchair various steering methods including lean to steer
5040812 1991 Patin  'inclinable vehicle with 3 or more wheels' includes a clutch for lean control
5069469 1991 Rosengrant 2F HPV
5121809 1992 Sbarro
5116069 1992 Miller 1F3TAT lean is motorized hydraulic. depicted as enclosed narrow vehicle
5238258 1993 Michaud  leaning motorcycle sidecar
5240267 1993 Owsen 1F1T depicted as pedalled front wheel drive bicycle
5354084 1994 Lofgren HPV 1F3TNL hand pedalled
5437467 1995 Patin  stabilization device for vehicle with 3 or more wheels
5568935 1995 1F1T lean only to steer hpv has been called the Raven
5580089 1996 Kolka  camber control system for automobiles
5611555 1997 Vidal  1F3TNL depicted as a motorcycle
5678835 1997 Sung  1F1TNL may not differentiate lean angle to speed, depicted as pedalled bicycle
5730453 1998 Owsen 1F1TNL focus is chain drive to rear
5732962 1998 Mageren depicted as an automotive body tilting strategy
5762351 1998 Soohoo inclinable vehicle depicted as human powered by pedals 2F3TAL with computer control lean and manual overide
5765846 1998 Braun/ Daimler-Benz motor company. described as a 'curve leaning vehicle' this apparently is the patent for the Mercedes Life-jet
5772224 1998 Tong  vehicle tilting system to improve passenger comfort
5927424 1999 Van Den Brink  tilt control device, all hydraulic
D427548 Sacco et al, Body Design Patent for the Mercedes [ Daimler-Chrysler ] Life-Jet
6062581 2000 Stites HPV high c of g
6220612 2001 Beleski HPV riding toy 1F legs push on two arms to propel it while standing. Sold as the Trikke
6250649 2001 Braun / Daimler emergency backup system for curve-leaning vehicle
6276480 2001 Aregger This is the Aregger CityMobil. prototype has been built, fully bodied. Front-wheel Drive
6279920 2001 Choudhery Variable camber suspension system
6328125 2001 Kroonen / Van Den Brink
027030   2002 Takashi TT Park Lock
6352274 2002 Redman hpv lean to steer hand pedaled
EP Patents - European Patent Office (EPO) images back to 1979/80
    4230 1982 Patin device for controlling lean
  17480 1983 Watanabe Honda motor company. Park Lock
  20835 1985 Jephcott discusses a variety of theoretical chassis designs. Known as the CityMobile Micro
142505 1985 Geerlof (no image available)
153521 1985 Jephcott especially concerns tilt control hydraulics and actuation
205419 1986 Jephcott  database says, "no image available"
247093 1987 James  titled, "Self-Stabilizing Cambering Vehicle", but there is no image available from the patents database
251906 1991 Patin . tilt control device has some mathematical formula mixed in the French language section
369863 1993 Patin  "Stabilising device for inclinable vehicle" depicted as an enclosed 1F3T
557449 1996 Fought . may be a tilting three-wheeler for handicapped people
560670 1995 Patin "Vehicle Stabilization Device"
592377 1994 Rino " Four-wheeled motor vehicle with the action of a motor-cycle "
606191 1997 Vidal 1F2TNL
626307 1998 Doveri depicted as enclosed tilting trike
686112 1996 Nehrke 1F3T appears to be a device to connect a chain drive to a rear wheel drive system
796193 Van Den Brink, tilt control device
876263 1999 Geiser 1F3T depicted as one person 'city car' [ German p 2 - 9  English  p 9 - 10 French 10-11 Drawings p 12-27 ]
879168 1999 Augenstein all wheels tilting "Child's muscle powered toy " [ German p 1-4 English p 4  French p 5 Drawings begin  p 6 ]
885756 1998 Ishikawa    "Tilt control apparatus for industrial vehicles"
900713 Holzel, Mercedes company may concern the Life-Jet
941198 Aregger same as WO 9824681
D427548 2000 Sacco Mercedes Life-Jet body design
979771 2000 Acker / DaimlerChrysler company. "Method for influencing the roll characteristics of motor vehicles" "No Image Available" on March 16, 2000.
983919 2000 Brown and Tseng / Ford Global Technologies company. "A method for detecting a bank angle experienced by a moving vehicle" IPC Class B60T 008/00 B60T 00800 "No Image Available" on March 16, 2000.
1070658 2001 Cossalter / Aprilia Three-wheeled vehicle with front rolling part
???? 21/ Cossalter V. - Patent No. 01300175, EP99114532.7: Meccanismo per la realizzazione di un veicolo rollante a tre ruote - 1999
941198 2001 Aregger This is the Aregger CityMobil. prototype has been built, fully bodied. Front-wheel Drive
1151912 2001 Takashi Yamaha 1F1T human power with electric assist
1155950 2001 Allessandro / Piaggio  two front wheels single shock absorber for the two front wheels
1180476 2002 Doveri
WO Patents - World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
7900686 1983 Patin [ same as US 4368796   EP 4230 ]
8403074 1984 Geerlof depicted as a small enclosed TT [ same as EP 142505 ]
9200217 1992 Osorio similar to GM Toy US patent 4045048
9534459 1995 Van Den Brink
9721583 1997 Muccio 1F3T
9727071 1997 Geiser 1F3T depicted as enclosed motorcycle sized vehicle
9843872 1998 Sergio/ Protos co. 1F motorized depicted as enclosed, says has been tested
9824681 1998 Arregger. same as EP941198
9843872 1998 Sergio " Three-wheeled vehicle with Tilting System "
9849023 1998 Braun Mercedes Life-Jet? emergency back-up system
9912795 1999 Ammon Mercedes Life-Jet? roll control system
9914099 1999 Van Den Brink.  tilt control device
9924308 1999 Van Den Brink.  tilt control device
9925602 1999 Jessen 2F upright sitting HPV lean may not vary according to speed
9941136 1999 Ficcadenti  2F3T
9947372 1999 Edwards  1F3TAL   ( see also PCT/US99/05427 )
9950133 1999 Nemeth  two or more wheels, computerized lean. depicted as motorcycle. May be that no wheels lean
9954186 1999 Falchi not really a TT, wheel cambering system
61423     2000 Minot
73127     2000 Boedec " can lean more than 45 degrees "
75002     2000 Hiroyoshi / Honda. Swing-arm suspension with steering for one or two wheels
192084   2001 Leandro / Aprilia 2 Front Wheels tt. Probably the same as the Aprilia Los Angeles.
9824681 2001 Aregger This is the Aregger CityMobil. prototype has been built, fully bodied. Front-wheel Drive
136253 2001 Bruno 1F3T hydraulics drive to both rear wheels
187698 2001 Gianfranco 2F TT
187689 2001 Kroonen Van Den Brink Carver with 3-wheel steering
Austrian AT
126165 1932 Geyer geared mechanism may be a tractor
156489    1939 Paes hydraulics depicted as wheel pair *
394694B 1992 Pichler "Chassis having tilting steering, in particular for three-wheeled
bubble cars"
Belgium BE
548491 1956 Boegner hydraulics 4 wheels
628690 1963 Citroen / Citroen hydraulics 4 wheels
Brazil
Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial http://www.inpi.gov.br
Sanjuan c1995 MU7002934-2 Tricycle with Axial Articulations
Sanjuan 1998 DI5800954-0 MU7801122-1 Quadricycle with Axial Articulations
Bulgaria
Georgi Chervendinev has two patents
China CN
1069459 1993 Liu "Fully-declining recumbent tricycle"
2391802 2000 Xubiao "Device for preventing motor cycle from side lying down when steering"
2461842 2001 Jing "Three-wheel sliding cycle running by swing action"
2463286 2001 Hongzhang  " Front frame side-tipping mechanism for tricycle "
2468784 2001 Fenglei "Balancing Apparatus for Motor Tricycle"
2464618 2001 Xiushan "Swing Joint for Tricycle"
 
France FR
2424178 1979 Chatillon HPV sliding seat
2474431 1981 Chatillon HPV sliding seat
247443            Chatillon HPV sliding seat
2494202 1982 Chatillon HPV sliding seat
2554772 1985 Bertrand
2689082 1993 Girardi
2773766 1999 Bruno
2794096 2000 Boedec
2796358 2001 Girardi HPV riding toy 1F
2807729 2001 Bruno 1F hpv tricycle with progressive steering caused by inclining driver's seat
German DE  http://www.deutsches-patentamt.de/index.htm http://www.depatisnet.de/
[ * around 1940 - 1950 Ernst Neumann-Neander built at least one Tilting Three-wheeler, but I cannot find any patents. There is a photo in a German book " One Hundred Years of 3-Wheelers " ]
2707562          Trautwein
3230247          Kano/ Trautwein
3433986          Trautwein
3529909          Trautwein
3546073          Trautwein
3711554 1988 Schulz/ Trautwein leaning motorcycle and sidecar
4135585 1993 inventor not given. Depicted as enclosed TT.
19513649 1996 Hoppe " Three-wheeled vehicle for use like bicycle or motorcycle "
39 42 654 A1 1998? Koehn Mercedes Life-Jet
19513649 1996 Hoppe
19535567 1997 Frieder " Tricycle Tippable on its side "
19621938 1997 Eberhardt / Daimler-Benz
19621939 1997 Braun / Daimler-Benz
19621948 1997 Oliver / Daimler-Benz
19838328 199   Schliewert  hpv known as Tripendo.
19716506 1998 Pajtler Balance Control System for three and multi-wheeled vehicles
19728150 1998 Poresky ? 2F1T hpv recumbent
19738826 1998 Daimler-Benz 2F3TA Life-Jet
19716506
29701408 1998 Constin Design 2F
19824576 1999 Henselder " Lying Position Curve Leaning Three-wheeler "
19833478 2000 Kopetzky 1F1T
19838328 1999 Schliewert 2F3T hpv Tripendo
19921226 2001 Schwarz hpv 2F3T
19953076 2001 Scheurfler leveling tractor Arms chassis
German / Austrian patents
DE-AS 10 63 473 1988? Trautwein
Great Britain GB
143202 1920
20825171982 TOWNSEND ENGINEERING CO 2F3T depicted as motorcycle with two front forks with rocking yoke connecting them
Japan JP
52025320 1977 Fujiwara  "device for swinging wheels, that provides a mobility of a two-wheeled vehicle in addition to the safety of a three-wheeled vehicle." (no further details available on patents database)
57107910 1982 Umejiro 4 wheels body leaning
60168941 1985 Takamura  Suzuki motor company. Lean control lockout coupled to reverse gear mechanism
2124388 1990 Kamiyama Honda motor company. seems to be for the roof of the Honda Canopy/Cabana machines (see also 2099477)
3109191 1991 Tanaka, . Front frame tilted electric tricycle
3253476 1992 Zennosuke 4 wheels hydraulic geared mechanism
4221273 1992 Zennosuke 4 wheels hydraulic geared mechanism
5039073 1993 Matsuura / Honda  seems to be a battery powered trike maybe 1F1TNL
5085451 1993 Uchiyama, Suzuki motor company . seems to use a double backbone to tilt a 1F (see also 5085452 which is a trailer device for this machine)
5008782 1993 Sato, Kubota motor company . looks like a 1F3TNL
5085453 1993 Uchiyama Suzuki motor company. 1F3T
5139357 1993 Kamiya Honda motor co. . 2F3TNL depicted as a motorcycle type single steering shaft with two swingarms carrying two front wheels. Design would create a steering effect which would alter the wheelbase
5155372 Muamatsu, Suzuki motor co. 1F
5155373 see 5155372
5178251 1993 Hikichi Honda motor company,  might be all wheels leaning, said to be self erecting when stopped. depicted as motorcycle sized vehicle with windshield and roof
6018371 1994 Tanaka Honda motor company. Banking device from wheel speed.
6255557 1994 Matsuura Honda motor co.  seems to be rear powered section improvements maybe for Gyro/Stream/Canopy
7165127 1995 Murakami Isao  "Purpose: To tilt a vehicle body to the right or left relative to a traveling device." depicted as a one-person enclosed vehicle.
9156563 1995 Yamamoto Toyoyuki / Yamaha company "Oscillation Righting Mechanism of Tricycle"
9207856 1997 Ishihara 1F3T
9290787 1997 Mamoru " Tumbling Risk Reduced Bicycle "
10053182 1998 Takashi / Honda " AUTOMATIC SELF-SUPPORTING DEVICE FOR MOTOR TRICYCLE "
10059254 1998 Takashi / Honda looks like a five wheeled version of the Honda Gyro Canopy
11334670 1999 Hisatoshi / Honda " Joint Structure of an Oscillating Tricycle "
11011372 1999 Isao  "swing small-sized three-wheeled vehicle" no details
20011010577 2001 Yuji / Matsushita Electric 2F
Switzerland CH
11287    1895 Daimler [ TT related ? ]
54771   1910 Schroff dead weight shifting
197751 1938 Paes [ TT related ? ] hydraulics
368063 1963 Zimmerman 4 wheels and wheel attachment mechanism
528386 1972 Steinebrunner ?
97 196 1988? Trautwein
Taiwan TW
439758  2001 Shiau-Chuan " Three-wheeled Bicycle and Its Steering Structure "
443283 2001 Tzeng  " Three wheel twist scooter "
European Patent Office
Search EP, WO, Japanese and "worldwide" patent documents.
This has English, French and German language support.
http://ep.espacenet.com/
Patent Office sites around the world
   1.Australian Patent Office http://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/
   2.Austrian Patent Office http://www.patent.bmwa.gv.at/
   3.Belgian Patent Office http://www.european-patent-office.org/patlib/country/belgium/
   4.Brazilian Patent Office http://www.inpi.gov.br/
   5.Canadian Intellectual Property Office http://cipo.gc.ca/
   6.Czech Patent Office http://www.upv.cz/
   7.Chinese Patent Office http://www.cpo.cn.net/ http://jiansuo.com/
   8.Croatian Patent Office http://pubwww.srce.hr/patent/
   9.Cuban Patent Office http://www2.cuba.cu/OCPI/
  10.Danish Patent Office http://www.dkpto.dk/
  11.European Patent Office http://www.epo.co.at/index.htm
  12.Finnish Patent Office http://www.prh.fi/engl.html
  13.French Patent Office http://www.inpi.fr/
       http://dm.inpi.fr/inpidm/cgi-bin/IDMentry.cgi?_Session=&_Action=10_INDEX_GRIL
  14.Georgian Patent Office http://www.global-erty.net/saqpatenti/
  15.German Patent Office http://www.deutsches-patentamt.de/ http://www.depatisnet.de/
  16.Greek Industrial Property Organisation http://www.european-patent-         office.org/patlib/country/greece/index.htm
  17.Hong Kong Patent Office http://info.gov.hk/ipd/
  18.Hungarian Patent Office http://www.hpo.hu/
  19.Iceland Patent Office http://www.els.stjr.is/vefur.nsf/pages/default.html
  20.Indonesian Patent Office
  21.Italian Patent Office http://www.european-patent-office.org/it/
  22.Japanese Patent Office http://www.jpo-miti.go.jp/
  23.Korean Patent Office http://www.kipo.go.kr/
  24.Lithuanian Patent Office http://www.is.lt/vpb/engl/
  25.Luxembourg Patent Office http://www.etat.lu/EC/spi/index.htm
  26.Macedonian Patent Office http://www.ippo.gov.mk/
  27.Malaysian Intellectual Property Division
  28.Mexican Patent Office http://www.impi.gob.mx/
  29.Monaco Patent Office http://www.european-patent-office.org/patlib/country/monaco/
  30.Netherlands Patent Office http://www.european-patent-office.org/patlib/country/monaco/
  31.New Zealand Patent Office http://www.iponz.govt.nz/search/cad/dbssiten.main
  32.Peruvian Intellectual Property Office http://www.indecopi.gob.pe/
  33.Polish Patent Office
  34.Portuguese Patent Office http://www.inpi.pt/
  35.Romanian Patent Office
  36.Russian Patent Office http://www.rupto.ru/
  37.Singaporean Patent Office http://www.gov.sg/molaw/ipos/index.html
  38.Slovak Republic Patent Office http://www.indprop.gov.sk/
  39.Slovenian Patent Office http://www.sipo.mzt.si/GLAVAGB.htm
  40.Spanish Patent Office http://www.oepm.es/
  41.Swedish Patent Office http://www.prv.se/
  42.Swiss Institute of Intellectual Property http://www.ige.ch/
  43.Thai Patent Office http://www.dbe.moc.go.th/DIP/eng/index.html
  44.United Kingdom Patent Office http://www.ukpats.org.uk/
  45.United States Patent Office http://www.uspto.gov/
  46.World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) http://www.wipo.org/
  47.World Trade Organisation (WTO)  http://www.wto.org/
NON- USA PATENT REFERENCES I am not certain how much any of these are related to Tilting Three-wheelers. They were all listed as references by the many US patents above. Since they are Not in internet databases, I have no way to check them. Perhaps in the near future they will be viewable on the www .
Austria AT
00124993 1931
Belgium BE
00496016 1950
00548491 1956
Canada CA
00617021 1961
00981717 1976
France FR
00831200 ????
00333575 1838
00544720 1903
00549637 1922
00582068 1922
00817173 1924
00828405 1937
00854408 1938
00925892 1939
00961917 1947
00986197 1950
00993029 1951
01056181 1951
01078044 1954
01085100 1954
01101975 1955
01143882 1955
01158527 1957
01158922 1958
01319231 1958
01471948 1962
01482387 1967
02002481 1967
01562248 1969
02031813 1969
02154972 1970
02243103 1973
02277261 1975
02338836 1976
02550507 1977
Germany DE
00351989 ????
00402926 1919
00685880 1921
00744333 1939
00913390 1943
00911460 1949
00929051 1954
00006947 1955
01063473 1956
01146381 1959
01224164 1963
02502529 1966
03927924 1975
Great Britain GB
0008101 ????
9538OF  1884
019070F 1886
0005500 1908
0011300 1909
0015623 1910
0155025 1912
0359089 1920
0589614 1931
0616723 1947
0775405 1949
0899003 1957
0927745 1962
1149079 1963
1334971 196?
1526970 1973
2014094 1978
2045705 1979
2068308 1980
2084525 1981
2087324 1982
2097730 1982
2128142 1982
Italy IT
00351402 1936
00501464 1937
00517430 1954
00528441 1955
00543232 1955
00599680 1959
00795611  ????
Japan JP
04942586 ????
51413119 1974
53487967 1976
53412119 1978
05449559 1978
05536681 1979
05536682 1980
00006025 1980
00229608 1986
61229608 1986
Soviet Union SU
1425099 1988 (Mercedes?)
Taiwan TW
74206282

Back to Brooke's PRC68, Alphanumeric index of web pages, Motorized Bikes & Scooters, Vehicles, Military Vehicles, Motorized Bicycle, 427 Cobra web pages

[an error occurred while processing this directive] page created April 2002