Motorized Bikes

Brooke Clarke 2000 - 2007

Background
About Stability and Wheel Configuration
    3 Wheels
    2 Wheels
       Bicycle
        Motorized Bicycle
            MotoPed
       Motor Scooter
          Common Scooter Brands in Taiwan
  VehicleVariations
Table of Vehicles
Vehicle Manufacturers 

Background

A motorized bicycle is different from a motorcycle in that the engine or motor has much less horsepower.  If it meets a few rules no license is needed for the bike or rider.  The fuel economy can be quite good. Another name for them is moped.

About Stability and Wheel Configuration

Three Wheels

Steering stability that has to do with slip angles and over vs. under steer.  With a single front wheel on a three wheel vehicle the steering is considered unstable because when it drifts in over steer the rear end tends to get in front of the front.

Rollover stability has to do with the location of the c.g. relative the the tire contact patches.

The Tri Hawk could no be rolled over on smooth asphalt so has good roll over stability and has front wheel steering so has good steering stability.  The Morgans on the other hand have front wheel steering, but a high c.g. so tend to roll over in a hard turn.

Two Wheels

The stability of a two wheel vehicle is a function of it's road speed and effective design.  "Effective design" is the design including the effects of construction and maintenance, for example if bearings are worn then the bearing slop is part of the "effective design".

Bicycle

Delft Bicycle Dynamics Lab - design equations for a two wheeled vehicle where the major components are assumed to be rigid and no tire properties are included.  This limited analysis does allow some stability parameters to be calculated. 
06PA0459BicyclePaperv45.pdf - "Linearized dynamic equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review"
Four parts make up the model: Front Wheel, Rear Wheel, Rear Frame including the rider, Front Fork including Handlebar
For the reference design given in the paper the following stability factors are present::
At near zero speed 9, 0.5 m/s) the bicycle stability is like an upside down pendulum and can fall over to the left or right.
Next  (0.7 to 4.3 m/s) comes the weave unstability where the bick steers left right left etc.
Nex (4.3 to 6 m/s) the bike is self stable (it will roll without falling over without a rider.  6 m/s is called the capsize speed and above this speed the bike is marginally stable.

Motorized Bicycle

The classic example is the Wizzer (see below).
But you can still buy kits to add a 50cc (U.S. definition of displacement) / 80cc (China definition of displacement plus head volume) motor kits for bicycles.
I live in a hilly location and the slope of my drive way is over 11% (Wiki) and this motorized bicycle was able to drive up to the top.
That's really doing something that most electric bikes can not do.
One seller is Fast Bike Motors, but there are plenty just search for "motorized bicycle".
The Bicycle shown below is a Northrock CTM which is sold at Costco.  Because it has a large diameter down tube where the motor mount is located it might pay to get the optional motor mount bracket from Fast Bike Motors.

Motorized Bicycle
Motorized Bicycle Motorized Bicycle

MotoPed

Appears to be a kit of parts including a patent pending jack-shaft system.  Uses horizontal E-22 (Honda style) engines up to 155cc (MotoPed: FAQ).  When the 49cc engine is used it's probably in the unlicensed category of a motorbike.

Part of Motovox and tied to SmartCarb (will increase the fuel economy by an additional 25% to 40% with a target of 200+ miles per gallon, but costs about $700 so not economical).

$2,000 for a kit missing the engine and a few other items, or about $3,000 assembled and ready to ride.
Gross Vehicle Weight is not specified. Dry weight just over 120 pounds and varies a little with the model.

Motor Scooter

I'm writing this while in Taiwan where motor scooters outnumber cars and maybe even the population.  There are a very small number of light motorcycles and I haven't seen any heavy motorcycles.  The reason is the very congested traffic.  Motor scooters have a number of advantages when compared to everything else:

Common Scooter Brands in Taiwan:

Kymco (Kwang Yang Motor Co)-
5827146 Dual transmission for motorcycles,
D443849 Scooter, Jun 19, 2001
D493122 Scooter, Jul 20, 2004
D539706 Scooter, Apr 3, 2007
D556640 Motorcycle, Dec 4, 2007
US 2007/0219030 A1 Cooling mechanism for belt-based speed-change system of engine
Liado


PGO - Motive Power Industry associated with Piaggio of Italy
This may be the piston technonogy PGO is using.  It is made by PAC Materials.
6399020 Aluminum-silicon alloy having improved properties at elevated temperatures, Jun 4, 2002, NASA
6592687 Aluminum alloy and article cast therefrom, Jul 15, 2003, NASA
6918970 High strength aluminum alloy for high temperature applications, Jul 19, 2005, NASA

Sanyang Industry Co (SYM), Taiwan -
Innovative scooter and ATV maker.
D521908 Motorcycle May 30, 2006
D530243 Motorcycle, Oct 17, 2006
D563283 Motorcycle Mar 4, 2008
5258143 Carburetor with a cam-controlled venturi, Nov 2, 1993 -
6041753 Intake swirl enhancing structure for internal combustion engine, Mar 28, 2000 -
? Ceramic coated cylinder
? Steadite Wear Resistant Alloy Cylinder

Whizzer - although the Whizzer is made in Taiwan they are not popular there.
2173956 Motor Powered Bicycle, Bruce Roberts (Breene-Taylor Engineering Corp), Sep 26, 1939, 180/205; 123/195.00R; 180/221; 180/342 -
Whizzer Motor
            Powered Bicycle patent 2173956

Yamaha - has a scooter R&D operation in Taiwan.

Vehicle Variations

Sources of motive power

2SG 2-stroke gas

4SG 4-stroke gas

EM electric

Vehicle type

Sct scooters

BK bicycle add on kit

Electric

5755304 Electric motor operated wheel, Robert V. Trigg, Jeroen N. M. Kuijpers (Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha), May 26, 1998
180/65.5 ; 180/205; 180/220; 180/65.2 - electric motor inside rear wheel
Calls:
1320044
1809481
2756832
3864986
3908776
3991843
4299582
4541500
5243881
5855249 Electric vehicle for urban use, Shiro Nishimura (Maquinas Agricolas Jacto S.A.), Jan 5, 1999, 180/214 ; 180/65.5; 310/67R
Calls:
1155123
3289780
3572455
3930552
3989118
4558263
5163528
5207288
5560442
5633544
6347682 Electric drive unit for a bicycle, Johannes Buchner (na), Feb 19, 2002, 180/220 ; 180/205; 180/206; 180/65.5
Calls:
4267898 May 1981 Wheaton
4979927 December 1990 Tabori et al.
5256112 October 1993 Thomey et al.
5551927 September 1996 Enzmann et al.
5937964 August 1999 Mayer et al.
6024186 February 2000 Suga
6155369 December 2000 Whittaker
6173801 January 2001 Kakutani et al.

6290014 Power assist for bicycles, Paul B. MacCready (na), Sep 18, 2001, 180/205 ; 180/11; 180/15; 180/220
Calls:
1177210 March 1916 Pooley et al.
1269558 June 1918 Neracher
1373918 April 1921 Smith
2520587 August 1950 Wiesert
2822879 February 1958 Overton
3312299 April 1967 Kuecker
3934666 January 1976 Ellington
4346772 August 1982 Clifft
5113959 May 1992 Mastov et al.

6024186 Auxiliary power supply apparatus for bicycles, Toshihisa Suga (na), Feb 15, 2000, 180/291 ; 180/205; 180/206; 180/65.5
Calls:
2575873 November 1951 Henney
3878910 April 1975 Walker, Jr.
3912039 October 1975 Ordemann
4200164 April 1980 Pearne
4267898 May 1981 Wheaton
4280581 July 1981 Rudwick
5076386 December 1991 Ferneding
5341892 August 1994 Hirose et al.
5755304 May 1998 Trigg et al.
5857537 January 1999 Matsumoto

5865267 Direct drive power assist apparatus for a bicycle, Richard A. Mayer, Bruce S. Widmann (Electric Bicycle Co), Feb 2, 1999, 180/205 ; 180/220
two electric motors drive gears on front wheel
Calls:
0675390 June 1901 Keating
1743751 January 1930 Baker
3387681 June 1968 Rabjohn
3921741 November 1975 Garfinkle et al.
4410060 October 1983 Cunard
5253724 October 1993 Prior
5341892 August 1994 Hirose et al.
5368122 November 1994 Chou
5375676 December 1994 Takata et al.
5474150 December 1995 Mabuchi
5487442 January 1996 Hua
5671821 September 1997 McGreen

5842535 Electric drive assembly for bicycles, Warren E. Dennis (Electric Transportation Co), Dec 1, 1998, 180/205 ; 180/206; 180/220; 180/221
Calls:



1832018 November 1931 Gossard
3841428 October 1974 Bialek
3878910 April 1975 Walker
3905442 September 1975 O'Neill
3966007 June 1976 Havener et al.
3991843 November 1976 Davidson
4030562 June 1977 Leighton et al.
4168758 September 1979 Holt
4175629 November 1979 Kalajzich
4183418 January 1980 Dudas
4410060 October 1983 Cunard

5662187 Electrically assisted pedalled bicycle, James Robert Mc Govern, Sep 2, 1997, 180/205 ; 180/220; 180/65.2; 180/65.5
Calls:
3991843 November 1976 Davidson
4221275 September 1980 Pennebaker et al.
5272938 December 1993 Hau et al.
5368122 November 1994 Chou
5433284 July 1995 Chou
5450915 September 1995 Li
5474150 December 1995 Mabuchi

4906053 Quick-release type clamping assembly for bicycle hub, Mamoru Kawai (Sansin Eng), Mar 6, 1990, 301/105B; 301/111
4028915 Lever arm lock for quick release hub assembly
5560442 Electrically motorized wheel, particularly for bicycles, with incorporated ...
5341892 Motor and pedal driven bicycle, Yasuo Hirose, Yukifumi Yamaguchi (Sanyo Electric Co), Aug 30, 1994, 180/220; 180/655; 280/288.4
Calls:
3773131 ELECTRIC AUTOCYCLE Nov 1973
4280581 Motor and pedal driven bicycles Jul 28, 1981
4346777 Motor unit for bicycles Aug 31, 1982
4559462 Dynamo-electric cycle axle Dec 17, 1985
5272938 Flat rim type motor drive mechanism for bicycles Dec 28, 1993

5474150 Battery operated wheeled vehicle, Takashi Mabuchi (Yamaha), Dec 12, 1995, 180/220 ; 180/68.5
Calls:
572036 Wheel with Electrical Motor Hub for Vehicles
Nov 1896
3800898 ELECTRICALLY POWERED BICYCLE Apr 1974
4346777 Motor unit for bicycles Aug 31, 1982
5199520 Wheeled chair Apr 6, 1993
5207288 Scooter body and front-wheel drive type electromotive scooter May 4, 1993
5272938 Flat rim type motor drive mechanism for bicycles Dec 28, 1993
5341892 Motor and pedal driven bicycle Aug 30, 1994
5366037 Powered wheelchair having drive motors integrated into driven wheels Nov 22, 1994


Gas (Kit or Puropse Built)

543094 Motor for Bicycles, Nelson S. Hopkins, Jly 23 1895, 180/205 ; 123/190.4; 123/523; 123/70V; 123/72; 123/90.64
552312 Motor for Bicycles, S.B. Battey, 180/206 ; Dec 131 895, 123/543; 180/219; 180/301; 48/107; 48/144; 60/39.44; 60/39.52
564155 Velocipede, F.T. Millet, Jly 14 1896, 180/205 ; 123/404; 123/44R; 123/90.2
574262 Motor-Vehicle, EDWARD J. PENNINGTON (Motor Cycle Co), Dec 29, 1896, 180/225 ; 123/189; 123/193.1; 123/58.1; 123/86; 180/205
579554 Gas Motor, E.W. Blum, March 23, 1897, 180/229 ; 123/144; 123/195HC; 123/197.1; 123/53.1; 180/205
608968 Gas or Oil Motor for Bicycles,  W. Morava, Aug 9, 1898, 180/206 ; 123/193.1; 123/434; 123/46SC; 123/68; 123/90.1; 180/165; 280/215
632474 Motor Driven Vehicle, C.T.B. Sangster, Sep 5, 1899, 180/215 ; 123/195R; 123/435; 180/206
633484 Internal-combustion Motor for Bicycles, S. N. Pond, Sep 19 1899, 180/221 ; 123/58.2; 180/206 - gas engine kit

PMB purpose made bicycles

LM light motorcycles

Motive Drive Location

IFW inside the front wheel

AFW above the front wheel

Frm between the front and seat frame tubes

ARW above the rear wheel

FRW front of rear wheel

IRW inside rear wheel

BRW behind rear wheel

Table of Vehicles

Maker
Model
Description
Pwr
Type
Drv
Loc






Cushman





eZee























Wizzer
all
gas engine ki 2SG BK PMB
Frm
Zap DX
Dual Motor Kit
EM BK FRW
Zap SX
Single Motor Kit
EM BK
FRW

Vehicle Manufacturers

Zap -
Uses a dual motor system and a roller to power the tread of the tire.
patent 5491390 02/13/1996 Electric propulsion system for a bicycle
patent 5671821 09/30/1997 Electric propulsion system for a bicycle

Electric Motorbike Incorporated (EMB) - Lectra VR24 - 8HP peak, 3 HP continuous - dist. by ZAP with Evercel Ni-Zn battery

Slipstream Electric Bicycle -
Uses 1 HP motor, chain drive to rear wheel and single large sprocket.
Electric Vehicles Northwest - electric-human hybrid vehicles dealer
US Pro Drive
Twike US dealer
Zap
Twike -  3 wheel (1 front, 2 rear - not as stable as 2-front, 1 rear) - TWIKE Resource Page -

Currie Technologies Inc. makes the US Pro Drive -

Uses chain drive to rear wheel on side opposite to stock pedal derailer drive.

Cushman

703695 Gas Engine, Everett B. Cushman & Leslie S. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Oct 26, 1901, 123/73A ; 123/65A; 123/73V
2-ccyle with valve on side for bicycle use
721287 Packing for Engines, Leslie S. Cushman & Everett B. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Feb 24, 1903, 277/385 ; 123/73R; 277/397; 384/135; 384/142
736224 Gas Engine, Everett B. Cushman & Leslie S. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Aug 11, 1903,
123/69V ; 123/195R; 123/41.69; 123/65R; 123/65VB; 123/66; 123/73CC; 123/DIG.6
minimizing fresh charge to goes directly to exhaust in 2-stroke engine
794927 Carburetor, Everett B. Cushman & Leslie S. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Jul 18, 1905, 261/51 ; 261/52; 261/58; 261/70
858707 Gas-Engine, Leslie S. Cushman & Everett B. Cushman (not assigned), Jul 2, 1907, 123/73A ; 123/73V
861438 Carburetor, Everett B. Cushman & Leslie S. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Jul 30, 1907, 261/64.4 ; 137/527; 261/63
1008309 Friction Clutch, Everett B. Cushman (not assigned), Nov 14 1911, 192/93A ; 192/89.21
1099916 Splash Lubricating System, Everett B. Cushman (Cushman Motor Works), Jun 16 1914, 184/11.2 ; 184/11.1; 184/6.24
1289404 Water-cooler for Engines, Everett B. Cushman (not assigned), Dec 31, 1918, 123/41.52
1347685 Splash Lubricating System, Everett B. Cushman (not assigned), Jul 27, 1920, 184/13.1
1369327 Oil-feeder, Everett B. Cushman (Piersen Mfg), Feb 22, 1921, 184/103.2 ; 137/435; 137/437; 137/453
1375748 Automatic Oil-feed, Everett B. Cushman (Piersen Mfg), Apr 26, 1921, 184/103.2 - crankcase
1391668 Clutch, Everett B. Cushman (Piersen Mfg), Sep 27 1921, 192/70.27 ; 192/89.27
1417037 Radiator, Everett B. Cushman (Piersen Mfg), May 23 1922, 165/86 ; 123/41.44; 165/125; 165/92; 165/DIG.147
1630527 Internal-combustion Engine, Everett B. Cushman (not assigned), May 31, 1927, 123/286 ; 123/263; 123/265; 123/41.72
2274043 Motorized Bicycle, Leslie S. Cushman (not assigned), Feb 24, 1942, 180/221 ; 180/205 -
2429153 Centrifugal Clutch, Charles D. Ammon (Cushman Motor Works), Oct 14 1947, 192/105CD ; 180/219; 192/109R; 74/333
Calls:
2230293 Transmission, F. W. Harris (Patco), Feb 4 1941, 474/70 ; 192/105BA; 192/48.4; 74/336R; 74/368
Two speed auto transmission, allows push start and ideling, probably for scooter
2286461 Clutch for Motor Vehicles, Brace Bums (Salsbury), Jun 16, 1942, 192/105R - for motor scooters
2556512 Variable Ratio Drive Mechanism, Charles D. Ammon (Cushman Motor Works), Jun 12 1951, 474/14 -
Others
2601342 Mounting for Internal-combustion Engines, A. Starts (Camfield), Jun 24 1952, 180/222 ; 15/88.3; 477/34
i-Bike -
central motor drives rear wheel via huge pully with belt.
eBikes -  by Lee Iaccoca
Motor is inside a special rear hub. $995 to $1295
Electric Transportation Company (etc) -
Has a saddlebag looking product that fits over a tire to add a motor and battery to a bike.
EV Rider - Two and Three-Wheeled Electric Scooters  - BatteryBikes on line sotre

Righton KM Corporation - Keelung, Taiwan

BiKit -

Uses 2 motors driving the side walls of the tire, not the tread.
Charger Electric Bicycles - partnership between GT bicycles & AeroVironment -
electric power is provided proportional to the riders input and can be set from 1/2 to 4 times assist.
Uses a second chain driving the rear wheel.
Suppo -
Drive motor in rear hub, foldable models
Dimension EDGE - also complete bikes at Detour Bicycles -

Skeeter! EV - Mike's E-Bikes, 2270 Yale St., Palo Alto, CA 94306 USA http://members.aol.com/TailwindEV/ - A Tailwind(tm) Electric Scooterbike is a hybrid human-powered/electric-powered around-town scooter with aerodynamic streamlining. Today's version achieves five times the range of other "electric bicycles" and achieves comparable daily "City Miles" to other 4-wheeled electric vehicles (while costing ten times less than those overpriced vehicles). Future versions will achieve over 100 miles at 25 mph per charge *without* reliance on expensive and high-tech batteries/motors.
Mike's Electric Bikes of Palo Alto
Mike Saari
2270 Yale Street
Palo Alto, CA 94306
415-493-7633

Propulsors -

Wizzer

Just prior to W.W. II an add on gas engine kit was developed  that  could be  added to a common balloon  tire bicycle and the company name was Wizzer.  A large diameter pulley is fitted to the rear wheel spokes giving the Wizzer a distinctive look. Their demise may have been caused by patent infringement with the Schwinn frame or because of the introduction of light weight motorcycles.  Now made in Taiwan.
Big Kid Toys - sells the Wizzer and other interesting vehicles
Simpson Motor Bikes - sells a number of engine kits (improperly called motor kits).

 They had patents:
2173956 Motor Powered Bicycle, Bruce Roberts (Breene-Taylor Engineering), Sep 26 1939, 180/205 ; 123/195R; 180/221; 180/342
2259983 Internal Combustion Motor, A.A. Anderson (Breene-Taylor Engineering), Oct 21 1941, 123/182.1 ; 123/41.86
2543991 Spring Fork Mechanism, Henry A. Schuricht (Wizzer Motor Co), Mar 6 1951, 280/276 -
2549135 Alternating Current Generator, Floyd A. Sherman (Wizzer Motor Co), Apr 17, 1951,  310/156.42 -
500  to 3,000 RPM output is between 6.0 and 7.2 Volts
References:
  578280 Dynamo Electric Machine and Electric Motor, CHARLES P. TURNER, Mar 2, 1897, 310/254 ; 310/218 -
twin coil type field magnet with pure iron facing
1137544 Tone Producing Means, Severy, Apr 27 1915, 84/19 ; 310/111; 310/155; 310/191 - musicaltone generator using disks with various shapes
1904308 Magneto, KENNETH A. HARMON (WICO ELEC), Apr 18, 1933, 310/153 ; 123/634; 310/155 -
1977600 Electromagnetic Pole, Anthony Winther, Oct 16 1934, 310/105 ; 310/218 - Eddy current electric clutch
2071573 Ignition System, Randolph (GM corp), Feb 23 1937,
123/599 ; 310/156.25; 310/156.42; 310/68D; 315/177; 315/206; 315/208; 315/212; 315/218; 315/241R; 315/246; 315/302
uses vacuum tube
2081800 Magneto-Electric Generator, Le Roy S. Dunham (Edison-Splitdorf corp), May 25, 1937, 310/156.51 ; 310/156.11; 310/261 -
2104707 Electric Generator, William Rawlings, Jan 4 1938, 310/66 ; 310/156.18; 310/156.26; 310/67A; 310/67R -
hub mounted PM generator for cycle
2213724 Magneto Rotor, Edward A. Vogel (Fair-banks Morse & co), Sep 3 1940, 310/156.23 ; 310/156.14; 310/42 - PM mounting
2248030 Motion Transmitting Mechanism, Zwack, July 1, 1941, 310/104 ; 310/97; 417/420; 73/861.75 - magnetically coupled
2489517 Magnetoelectric Machines, William Brown, Nov 29, 1949, 310/75C ; 310/90
small generator driven from cycle tire
2550941 Bicycle Frame, Henry A. Schuricht (Wizzer Motor Co), May 1 1951, 280/288 ; 280/274; 280/281.1 -
multiple tubes for a stronger frame - looks very much like the Schwinn 2151533
References:
2151533 Bicycle Frame, Frank W. Schwinn, Mar 21 1939, 280/281.1 ; D12/111
novel and graceful construction
2250805 Bicycle, George Lewiaski (Hettrick Mfg), Jul 29 1941, 280/288 - oval with no internal brace.
2280801 Bicycle Construction, awrence E. Dempsey (Sears Roebuck & Co), Apr 28, 1942, 280/284 -
2560991 Variable-Speed Drive, Henry A. Schuricht (Wizzer Motor Co), Jul 17 1951, 474/69 ; 180/205; 474/89
a counter shaft has two pulleys on a common shaft.  Moving the shaft closer to the engine allows belt slip.  Not really a variable drive but just slip.
References:
  355555 Pulley, Radford, Jan 4 1887, 474/182 ; 474/903 - made from two spun or spamped sheetmetal disks
  718084 Generating Alternating Currents, CHARLES S. BRADLEY (GE),
  729197 Motor Cycle Gear, EUGENE MATHIEU, May 26 1903, 474/89 ; 180/205; 180/231 - chain drive that can be disengaged
  833979 Shafting, HENRY K. SANDELL (MILLS NOVELTY CO), Oct 23, 1906, 474/89 ; 112/270 - idler pulley system
1978526 Driving Mechanism, Eppler (United Shoe Machinery corp), Oct 30 1934, 474/89 ; 15/390 - over center idler pulley
2047362 Pulley Belt Control Device, Ernest Dunford (Landis Machine Co), Jul 14, 1936, 474/133 - V belt idler - disconnector
2156701 Belt Drive Mechanism, Thorvald Peterson (R F Wright), May 2, 1939, 474/114 ; 298/35R; 474/140 - electric motor on hinged plate
2630348 Driving Pulley, Henry A. Schuricht (Wizzer Motor Co), Mar 3 1953, 301/6.5 ; 474/174; 74/15
Improved large pully for attachment to rear wheel spokes that's centered and stays centered.
References:
718094 Wheel for Motor Cycles, A. Clement, Jan 13 1903, 301/6.5 ; 301/55 - large pulley on rear wheel clamps to spokes and has it's own spoke to rim.
1062905 Screw-Spikes, Gadd, May 1913 - for holding railroad rails
1186224 Metal Vehicle Wheel, T.E. Murray, Jun 6 1916, 301/6.7 ; 188/218R - includes brake drum
1355505 Wheel Construction, JOHN KIISK, Oct 12, 1920, 301/6.7 ; 301/104 - matal bands instead of spokes & brake drum
1561180 Attaching Means for use on Wire Spoke Wheels, JOSEPH F. MERKEL (GRS Products), Nov 10, 1925, 74/432 ; 301/6.7 -
large pulley on rear wheel attached only to spokes.
1618074 Pulley, ARTHUE M. PLORY, Feb 15, 1927, 74/15 ; 301/40.5; 301/6.7; 474/47 - mounts to wood spoked wheel
2655611 Alternating Current Generator, Floyd A. Sherman (Wizzer Motor Co), Oct 13 1953, 310/42 ; 29/598; 310/156.2
References:
1360165 Method for Making Commutators, CHARLES C. ZENK (Diehl Mfg), Nov 23, 1920, 264/261 ; 264/277; 29/597; 310/235 -
1360166 Method for Making Commutators, CHARLES C. ZENK (Diehl Mfg), Nov 23, 1920,
1898929 Commutator and Method of Making it, V.G. Apple, Feb 21 1933, 310/235 ; 264/272.2; 29/597
1991046 ROCESS FOB MAKING MAGNETO ROTORS, Jakob Bohli, Feb 12, 1935, 310/156.51 ; 29/598; 310/156.23; 310/42
2468146 Cigarette Lighter, Vissing, Apr 26, 1949, 219/268 ; 310/69; 310/75A - small electric generator heats wire
2475776 ROTOR FOR DYNAMOELECTRIC MACHINES, Maurice W. Brainard, Jan 12 1947, 310/156.76 ; 310/269 - PM type
2516901 ROTOR FOR DYNAMOELECTRIC MACHINES, Wayne J. Morrill, Aug 1 1950, 310/156.18 
2678221 Bumper Attached Hitch for Towing, Dietrich Kohlsaat (Wizzer Motor Co), May 11, 1954, 280/292 ; 280/505 - PM type
References:
1949962
2280734
2329525
2448436
2468894
2499750
2980121 Device for Storing, Treating and Transferring Parts, Henry A. Schuricht (Wizzer Motor Co),  Apr 18 1961, 134/83 ; 134/107; 134/123; 134/132; 134/133; 134/153; 134/154; 198/778 - production line automation


Honda -

Yamaha PAS (Power Assisted Peadling) - ikley -

Uses speed and torque sensors to only apply power when the rider is peadling.



Sanyo -

Panasonic -

Suzuki -

Autoped scooters (1915 - 1921)

A key idea for all of these is that the scooter needs to be small and light enough that it can be carried by the rider when needed.
D45868 Design for an automobile, Arthur Hugo Cecil Gibson, Jun 2, 1914,
1192514 Self-propelled vehicle, Arthur Hugo Cecil Gibson, Autoped Co. of America, July 25, 1916, 180/223, 180/13 - less than 50 pounds, foldable handle small, compact & light weight scooter.
1297676 Motor-vehicle, Arthur Hugo Cecil Gibson, Gibson Mon-Auto Co., Mar 18, 1919, 180/225, 477/209, D12/110, 192/217, 180/229 -    
1293642 Automobile, Arthur Hugo Cecil Gibson, ibson Mon Auto Company, Feb 4, 1919,  180/10, 180/225, 280/287 - small, compact and light enough that it can be carried by the rider if needed.

Tilting Three Wheeled Vehicles

These are a step up, they are classified as motorcycles.  The idea is to have the stability of a 4 wheel vehicle but keep the overhead costs down in the motorcycle area.

EV World - electric bicycle shop - Bicycle Comparison Chart -
Electric Vehicle Internet Resources -
Moped News - Moped Web Ring  -
Electric Vehicles Northwest -
EV Global Motors -
www.electric-bikes.com - Electric Trikes and Tricycles (adult three-wheelers) - Survey of Electric Bikes and Power Systems -
Workbikes and Pedicabs -
workbike.org - bicycles used for work
Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Company - gizmo - looks like the Messerschmitt  3-wheel bubble car, except backwards!
Human Powered Vehicle Association -
Tricycles - stable 2-whels in front, 1-wheel in back
Inspired Cycle Engineering  (ICE)-  stable 2-whels in front, 1-wheel in back , including a tandem model
r h o a d e s   c a r - 4 wheel cycles
Quadracycle -
Byke Kar -
Tipke - Pedicabs = Rickshaws
Kango - electric go carts -
A2Marketing - Supplying Electric Bikes to the South Coast of England

Patent Classes

123 Internal Combustion Engines
180 Motor Vehicles
205 With mechanism of occupant-powered type for developing torque for supplementing, alternating with, or replacing torque of motor
280 Land Vehicles
310 Electric Motor or Generator Structure

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