Battery Patents

© Brooke Clarke, N6GCE


Background
G. L. Leclanché
Dry Cell
No. 6 
Gonda - Self Winding Clock Co 
Gravity Battery 
Battery Charging, see: Battery Chargers, Patents
Battery Testing 
Other Patents
Lead Acid Batteries
    Cylindrical Lead Acid
Battery Makers

Background

This page was started when I noticed that a 4 pack of Energizer Alkaline "D" cell batteries has a large number of patent numbers.  After reading them it was clear that when Mercury was banned from batteries sold in the U.S. it not only effected "Mercury" batteries but also Alkaline batteries since at that time they used Mercury.  In order to eliminate the Mercury in Alkaline batteries a lot of inovation was required.  Today's Alkaline batteries have better performance than the older ones that contain Mercury.

G. L. Leclanché Patents

55441 Electric Battery June 5, 1866 429/105 429/188
Improvement in a battery using copper salts. - not zinc carbon type
64113 Electrical Battery with Primary and Secondary Piles Combined April 23, 1867 429/224
Uses a zinc plate, manganese peroxide electrolyte and carbon rod. <-> Key technology pat. good till 1884
165452 Galvanic-Battery July 13, 1875 429/164
No porous cup needed with carbon electrode - combined carbon & manganese peroxide
234413 Galvanic Battery November 16, 1880 429/163 429/224
Improvements to the carbon electrode and the use of a lid to hold both electrodes and make it easy to replace the liquid.

Dry Cell

Class Numbers:

29 Metal Working
144 Woodworking and Feeder or Presser
198 Conveyors, Power Driven
425 Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Trating: Apparatus
429 Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process
    /82  HAVING SPECIFIED VENTING, FEEDING OR CIRCULATION STRUCTURE (OTHER THAN FEEDING OR FILLING FOR ACTIVATING DEFERRED ACTION-TYPE BATTERY) .Venting structure ..Separate ventilating inlet and exhaust openings
    130 CURRENT PRODUCING CELL, ELEMENTS, SUBCOMBINATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR USE THEREWITH AND ADJUNCTS . Separator, retainer or spacer insulating structure (other than a single porous flat sheet, or either an impregnated or coated sheet not having distinct layers) ..Insulator structure is only spacer of the rod, button, strip, or frame type
    /134 CURRENT PRODUCING CELL, ELEMENTS, SUBCOMBINATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR USE THEREWITH AND ADJUNCTS . Separator, retainer or spacer insulating structure (other than a single porous flat sheet, or either an impregnated or coated sheet not having distinct layers) .Having electrode enclosing feature ...Cylindrical unit cell type, flat unit cell type or porous cup type ....Paste or gel
    /172  CURRENT PRODUCING CELL, ELEMENTS, SUBCOMBINATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR USE THEREWITH AND ADJUNCTS .Cell enclosure structure, e.g., housing, casing, container, cover, etc. ..Cylindrical unit cell type, e.g., cup container electrode, tubular electrode, casing, etc. ...Reactive metallic can, cup or tubular electrode ....Having seal .....Mechanical clamping pressure seal

Dry Cell Patents

364369 Galvanic Battery, V. Francken (Leclanché Battery Co), Jun 14 1867 - method of making the carbons using either a process similar to that used for making carbons for arc lights or a simpler low temperature process that ends with high temperature firing in an oven.
,
1246876 Battery Capping Machine, Conrad Hubert, Nov 20, 1917, 29/623.1 ; 144/245.1; 144/250.24; 29/730; 29/790 - replaced hand operation.  Used to apply the small brass cap to the carbon rod. 
1388990 Dry Cell, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Aug 30, 1921, 429/134 ; 429/172
1398366 Dry Cell, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Nov 29, 1921, 429/82 ; 429/130; 429/172
1430727 Manufacture of Dry Cells, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Oct 3, 1922, 29/623.1
1510835 Machine for Tamping Dry-Cell Cartridges and the Like, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Oct 7, 1924, 425/128 ; 141/80
1564951 Manufacture of Dry Cells, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Dec 8, 1925, 29/623.2
658428 Carbon Pencil Feeding Mechanism, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., Feb 7, 1928, 198/400 ; 193/47

National Carbon Co

1205629 Circuit Controller for Portable Lights, G.F. Hitzelberger, Nov 21 1916, - a two position flash light switch
1216450 Deplolalrizer for Midget Batteries, Major E. Holmes (National Carbon Co), Feb 20, 1917, 429/224 ; 423/582 -
1264520 Flashlight Battery, Major E. Holmes (National Carbon Co), Apr 1918, 362/206 ; 200/60; 338/101; 338/71; 429/97 - carbon pile adjustable resistor allows controling brightness on cylindrical and tab type battery flashlights

2773926 Dry Cell, R.L. Glover (Union Carbide), Dec 11 1956, 429/167 ; 429/170; 429/173- sheet metal case all around with plastic to make leak proof


No. 6

836480 Dry Battery Cell, (National Carbon Co), Nov 20, 1906, 429/133 ; 429/178 - tapered for improved performance
838165 Battery Cell (National Carbon Co), Dec 11, 1906, 429/229 -
921186 Dry Battery Posting Machine, (National Carbon Co) May 11, 1909, 228/49.2- for soldering the binding post to the zinc can
1033228 Dry Battery Cell, (National Carbon Co), Jul 23, 1912, 429/165 ; 429/133; 429/166; 429/178
1027088 Waterproof Battery and Method of Making, May 21, 1912, 429/185 - combines No. 6 cells into a battery
1210577 Apparatus for Lining Dry Cells, (National Carbon Co), Jan 2, 1917 -
1292254 Electric Battery, N.K. Chaney, (National Carbon Co), Jan 21 1919, 429/199- preventing zinc corrosion reducing impurities
1369894 Nut Equipmeting Machine, (National Carbon Co), Mar 1, 1921 ,470/49 ; 470/46; 81/125 - for putting on the thumb nuts
1773310 Dry Cell Terminal, H.W. Jones (National Carbon Co),  Aug 19, 1930, 439/809 ; 429/121 - will not loosen if wire is moved

Gonda - Self Winding Clock Co

369769 Galvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer, September 13, 1887, 429/133 - depolarizer is bag around carbon electrode
380084 Galvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer, March 27, 1888, 429/164 - porous-cup and carbon electrode
432973 Galvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer,
441130 Electric Battery Connection, H.J. Brewer,
451364 Electric Connection
557048 Zinc Support for Batteries
576720 Galvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer, New York, February 9, 1897, 429/164 ; 429/175; 429/186; 439/817 - Zinc bracket
579916 Battery Cover, H.J. Brewer, March 30, 1897, 429/175 - holds rectangular removable carbon
653763 Electrogalvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer, July 17, 1900, 429/178 ; 204/196.18; 204/196.19; 429/186
seperates the carbon and depolarizer unlike Leclanché where they are combined resulting in lower resistance.
653764     "                        "                "                    ",          429/209 ; 429/239 -    "
653765     "                        "                "                    ",          429/81 ; 429/209 -      "
660836 Electrogalvanic Battery, H.J. Brewer, October 30, 1900, 429/209 ; 429/239 - simpler way of mounting depolarizer on carbon
677633 Zinc Element for Galvanic Batteries,
694089 Zinc Element for Primary Batteries,
814825 Battery Zinc
900476   Cover for Electric Batteries, H.J. Brewer, October 6, 1908, 429/164 ; 429/186 - cover slotted to accept different types of carbons
1026847 Cover for Electric Batteries, H.J. Brewer, May 21, 1912, 429/186 - molded rubber cover has stiffeners so that in summer the cover will not sag

Gravity Battery

715654 Gravity Electric Battery, A.M. Friend, Dec 9, 1902, 429/106 -  Isolates solid particles from moving between electrodes to improve shelf life
712668 Gravity Battery, W.N. Gove, Nov 4, 1902, 429/106 - replaces copper with Babbitt metal for much longer life.
393203 Gravity Battery, L. C. Bartley, Nov 20, 1888, 429/106 - Crow's foot electrodes and getter to keep Zinc away from copper extending life maybe 10 times.
183201 Gravity Battery, M.W. Parrish, Oct 10, 1876, 429/208 ; 429/106; 429/229 - Mentions Gravity Battery as prior art, but this may be the first time the term is used in a patent?
142999 Galvanic Batteries, T.A. Edison, Sep 23, 1873, 429/106
39571 Improvement in Galvanic Batteries, Edward Hill, August 18, 1863, 429/106
RE2502 Improvement in Galvanic Batteries, Edward Hill, Re-Issued March 12, 1867, 429/220 ; 429/229

Battery Testing

The method of testing needs to take into account a number of factors:
  • Battery Chemistry
  • Capacity of battery under test (Amp hours, Watt hours)
  • Temperature of the battery while being tested (effects voltage & indicates problems)
  • Load properties, i.e. resistor, constant current, switching mode power supply (current increases as batt V. goes down)
Class Numbers:
320 - Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging
324 - Electricity: Measuring or Testing
702 - Data Processing: Measuring, Claibrating or Testing

Carbon Zinc and Alkaline

TS-183 - This is a first generation tester that applies a resistive load and measures the battery voltage while loaded.
6823274 Apparatus and method for testing remaining capacity of a battery, Nov 23, 2004, ZTS, 702/63 ; 320/125; 320/136; 702/64; 702/65; 702/79
uses voltage at end of resistor load pulse.  D515444 Battery Tester - packaging for the 6823274.

Magnesium & some Military Carbon Zinc

PSM-13 - can be carried on a belt and tests radio batteries, Vietnam era.  Uses high current load to activate Magnesium batteies.

LiSO4 (BA-5590/U, BA-5598/U, BA-5588/U)

TS-4403 - Specifically made to test Batteries for: Modern radios like the PRC-104, RT-1439 (SINCGAARS), PRC-25 and PRC-77, PRC-68 Family.
4725784  Method and apparatus for determining the state-of-charge of batteries particulary Lithium batteries, Feb 16, 1988, 324/427 ; 320/149; 320/150; 320/162; 340/636.15
Uses pulse loading and voltages measured at various times in relation to the load pulse as well as temperature correction.  Capacity depends on manfuacturer as well as model.

Mercury

TS-23 - Tests the BA-1574/U Mercury battery used in the SDU-5/E Emergency Survival Strobe Light and the flash rate of the strobe.
BT-2 - Tests BA-1568/U as used in the PRC-90 Survival Beacon Radio and others, BA-1113/U used on the URC-64 Survival Radio, the K308A battery  used on the RT-10 Survival Radio, and the  BA-1574/U used on the SDU-5/E Emergency Survival Strobe Light.

Electric Gas Lighting Co

Battery

393123 Galvanic Battery, F.H. Root Nov. 20 1888, (Root Electric Gas Lighting Co), 429/89 ; 429/164
431742 Galvanic Battery, C.R. Goodwin (Electric Gas Lighting Co), July 8 1890, 429/149 ; 429/163 - Sampson No 2
431968 Process of Forming Porous Pots for Voltaic Batteries, C.R. Goodwin (Electric Gas Lighting Co), July 8 1890, 264/29.1 ; 106/122; 201/21; 264/29.4; 429/176
568007 Electric Battery, H.C. Thompson (Electric Gas Lighting Co), Sep 22, 1896, 429/164 -
866748 Battery Zinc, H.C. Thompson (Electric Gas Lighting Co), Sep 24, 1907, 429/229 - cylinder shaped zinc sheets - Sampson No 2 (The EGM Co Boston)

Annunciator

389423 Electro-Mechanical Gong - combines electromagnet & clock mainspring
435440 Automatic Electric Annunciator - not EGL Co - each new call resets prior indication
463001 Electric Annunciator - movement of poison bottles
473121 Electric Annunciator - setback base is Wood NOT iron, why?
513956 Annunciator - single coil electromagnets ?magnetic circuit?
521046 Electric Annunciator - coil spring a plunger in EM
525874 Electric Annunciator - reset buttom at bottom
529144 Automatic Set-Back Annunciator - extra electromagnets used to reset pointers
542664 Electric Annunciator - basic single coil solenoid ?magnetic path?
545069 Electric Annunciator - hinged drop down flag goog looking magnetic path
573723 Electric Floor-Push - used under dining table to trip Annunciator in kitchen

Electric Gas-Lighting Apparatus

260804 Electric Gas-Lighting Apparatus
260805 Electric Gas-Lighting Apparatus
375118 Electric Gas-Lighting Apparatus
400795 Spark-Coil
444896 Automatic Electric Igniting Device
644143 Electric Gas-Lighting Candle Burner

Other Patents


49824 Improvement in Galvanic Batteries, J. Blackie, Sep 5, 1865, 429/164
113864 Improved Thermo Electric Pair Moses G. Farmer, Apr 18, 1871, 136/200 ; 136/225 - German Silver and Antiminy-Zinc
300176 Galvanic Element, W. Wenzel, Jun 10, 1884,
304764 Dry Pile September 9, 1884 J. A. Thiébaut 429/166; 429/224
Replaced the zinc rod with a zinc can and combined the manganese peroxide electrolyte with potash and gypsum.  Looks very similar to a No. 6 battery. It's a "Dry cell" battery, i.e. no liquid.
315937 Electric Battery, A. Haid (Excelsior Batt Co), Apr 14, 1885, 429/149 - pocket sized
346207 Galvanic Battery, W.W. Le Grande, Jul 27, 1886, 429/219 ; 429/230
364639 Galvanic Battery April 7, 1887 V. Francken & E. Bender assigned to the Leclanché Battery Co. of N.Y.
Method for making the carbon cathode rods. 429/224; 429/220; 429/228; 429/232
373064 Galvanic Battery May 20, 1887 C. Gassner Jr.   429/201; 429/134
The zinc can with a carbon manganese central rod is filled with a mixture of:
  • Oxide of zinc 1 part by weight
  • Sal Ammoniac (ammonium chloride)1 part by weight
  • plaster* (plaster of Paris?) 2 parts by weight
  • zinc chloride 1 part by weight
  • water 2 parts by weight
*Hydrated calcium sulfate makes gypsum. When gypsum is dehydrated, it makes Plaster of Paris.
This results in the common flashlight battery.

38146 Carbon Plate for Galvanic Batteries, C Chester, April 14, 1863, 439/887 ; 429/164
34656 Improvement in Liquids for Exciting Galvanic Batteries, M Vergenes, March 11, 1862, 429/109 - Mangnese peroxide is used
353757 Voltaic Battery, F Partz, Dec 7, 1886, 429/106 ; 429/109 - mentions porous pot
400235 Galvanic Battery, E. Liebert & A. Rosenthal, Mar 26, 1889, 429/199 - cuts small capsule w/terminals on ends
425959 Galvanic Battery, L.M.J.C.C. Renard, Apr 15, 1890, 429/200 ; 429/202
567959 - Fuel to Electricity?

Lead Acid Batteries

1016874 Means & Method of Preventing Depletion of Electrolyte, T.A. Edison, Feb 6, 1912, 429/50 ; 429/57 - combine H2 and O
2131592 Electric Battery, and Particularly Secondary Battery and Method of Operating Same, A.E. Lange, Sep 27, 1938, 429/50 ; 429/57; 429/86
2571927 Electrolytic Cell and in Particular Alkaline Cell, G. Neumann, Oct 16, 1951, 429/59 ; 429/130; 429/69 - Sealed battery
2578027 Storage Battery Charging System & Method, R.L. Tichenor (T.A. Edison Co), Dec 11, 1951, 320/147 ; 204/228.4; 204/228.9 - uses auxiliary electrode
3172782 Storage Battery, O. Jache, Mar 9, 1965, 429/147 ; 429/225; 429/302 - Sealed Gel Cell
3257237 Lead Acid Type Storage Battery, O. Jache, Jun 21, 1966, 429/54 ; 429/225 - Sealed Gel Cell

Cylindrical Lead Acid

Cyclon "D" size lead acid like used in the O-1814. Gates was the origional maker, now (2007) it's EnerSys Energy.
3862861 Maintenance-free Type Lead Acid, Gates Rubber Co, Jan 28, 1975 429/57 ; 429/245; 429/252; 429/94 -
4216277 Vibration Resistant Electrochemical Cell, Aug 5, 1980, Gates Rubber Co., 429/175 ; 429/178
4637966 Sealed Lead-acid Cell, Gates Energy Prod., Jan 20, 1987, 429/57 ; 429/228; 429/247; 429/252; 429/94
4648177 Method of Producing a Sealed Lead Acid Cell, Gates Energy Products, Mar 10, 1987, 29/623.2 ; 205/63; 429/225; 429/247; 429/57; 429/94

Alkaline Batteries

4869928 Inner surface coating method and device for piping September 26, 1989 Osaka Gas Co. 427/206; 427/236; 427/239; 427/261; 427/287; 427/407.1; 427/409; 427/426
4963447 Alkaline cell with gelled anode October 16, 1990 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co.429/206; 429/165; 429/212; 429/230
5108494 Zinc alloy powder for alkaline cell and method for production of the same April 28, 1992 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. 75/347; 75/352; 425/513; 425/514; 425/518; 425/520; 429/206; 429/229
5108494 Zinc alloy powder for alkaline cell and method for production of the same April 28, 1992 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. 75/347; 75/352; 425/513; 425/514; 425/518; 425/520; 429/206; 429/229
5128222 Zinc-alkaline batteries July 7, 1992 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. 429/303; 429/206; 429/229
5168018 Method of manufacturing zinc-alkaline batteries December 1, 1992 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co.429/300; 429/206
5173371 Battery to prevent cell reversal December 22, 1992 Eveready Battery Co 429/1; 429/157; 429/178
5188869 Process for burnishing anode current collectors February 23, 1993 Eveready Battery Co 427/242; 29/90.01; 51/293; 204/293; 427/328; 427/383.3; 427/437
5223003 Process for preparing a battery tester label June 29, 1993 Eveready Battery Co 29/623.4; 29/623.5; 429/93
5227261 Cylindrical electrochemical cells with a diaphragm seal July 13, 1993 Eveready Battery Co 429/56; 429/174; 429/185; 429/206; 429/224
5311989 Common blister battery package and display May 17, 1994 Rayovac Corp 206/705; 206/471
5422201 Current collector assembly for an electrochemical cell June 6, 1995 Eveready Battery Co 429/170; 429/171; 429/174; 429/181
5464709 Alkaline cells that are substantially free of mercury November 7, 1995 Eveready Battery Co 429/229; 429/206; 429/224; 429/230
5667912 Current collector assembly for an electrochemical cell September 16, 1997 Eveready Battery Co 429/170; 429/172; 429/174; 429/181
5821010 Galvanic cell having a reliable sealable vent closure October 13, 1998 Eveready Battery Co 429/172; 429/174
5932371 Snap-through gasket for galvanic cells August 3, 1999 Eveready Battery Co 429/185; 429/172; 429/174; 429/224
6022639 Zinc anode for an electochemical cell February 8, 2000 Eveready Battery Co 429/229
6206938 Snap-through gasket for galvanic cells March 27, 2001 Eveready Battery Co 29/623.2; 429/174; 429/185
6265101 Battery constructions having increased internal volume for active components July 24, 2001 Eveready Battery Co 429/163; 429/164; 429/176; 429/177; 429/206
6300004 Battery constructions having reduced collector assembly volume October 9, 2001 Eveready Battery Co 429/164; 429/163; 429/175
6551748  Prevention of Polymerization in Li/Mn02 Organic Electrolyte Electrochemical Systems

Patents by Battery Maker

Duracell
Eveready 
Matsushita Electric Industrial
Rayovac
Saft
Toshiba Battery

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