Electromagnetic Toy Engine

© Brooke Clarke 2007


EM Toy
Fig. 1
Em Toy
Fig. 2
EM Toy
Fig 3
EM Toy
Fig. 4
Patent Dwg Toy Engine
Fig. 5
Em Toy Engine Patent drawing
Fig. 6
Photos are as received 16 Aug 2007
882681 Electromagnetic Toy Engine, H.G. Hawekotte & H.W. Klausmann, Mar 24, 1908, 310/46 ; 310/1; 310/83
1915 Catalog Ad
Background
This Toy Engine
    Commutator
Video
Electromagnet Analysis
Patents
Related
Links

Background

Steam was the source of power that drove the industrial revolution.  Steam gave way to combustion engines and electric motors as the source of power.  So you would expect that the men who knew steam and how to use it would look to the newer technologies to see what could be done.

The inventors of the Electromagnetic Toy Engine (see patent 882681 below) were Harry G. Hawekotte & Henry W. Klausmann both from Indianapolis, Indiana.  The five patents below have the name of one or the other of the inventors of the Electromagnetic Toy Engine.  It's clear that these men know about steam machinery and how it worked.  The reversing feature on the Toy Engine is a direct descendant of what's was commonly done with steam engines.  The Excavating Machine patent is based on a steam powered "donkey".

If  you know anything about Harry G. Hawekotte or HenryW. Klausmann from Indianapolis, Indiana or who made this Toy Engine, please let me know.

Some of the other patents listed also use an electromagnet in an engine that's made to appear similar to a steam engine.  This works since an electromagnet pulling in an armature (i.e. a solenoid) operates in a manner very similar to a steam powered piston.

A Solenoid is a cylindrical coil with an air core.  Typically a magnetic plunger is pulled into the core when the coil is activated.
An Electromagnet is a cylindrical coil with a magnetic core (typically soft iron or electrical Silicon steel).

The company name was H-K based on the last names of the inventors (patent 882681 Electromagnetic Toy Engine, H.G. Hawekotte & H.W. Klausmann, Mar 24, 1908, 310/46 ; 310/1; 310/83).  This company made a large number of toy variations that all used the flywheel and a pair of electromagnets, i.e. the key patent.

This Toy Engine

My interest is because this motor uses Electro-magnets instead of the more modern rotating type motor.  Electro-magnets were the first electrical component and were the foundation of the Telegraph, Stock Tickers, Teleprinters, district alarms, self winding clocks, Bells, Buzzers, annunciators and many other things.

The thing that separates electro-magnetic toy engines from model steam engines is the sound they make.  Model steam engines make some interesting sounds, especially those with more complicated valving or auxiliary attachments.  The electromagnetic toy engines make a sound that's similar to a gas engine and for me has more character.

Arrived needing a cleaning and a little electrical repair.  The reversing lever was not fitted and the flywheel does not have the 4 pins (left & right bumps) shown in Fig. 6 as "r".  There are a number of improvements from the details shown in the patent.  For example this Toy Engine has 3 armature bumps on the flywheel and the patent shows 4.  Tubular rivets are used instead of screws and bolts.  Sending current through a moving joint is not a good thing.   This was found to be unreliable in clocks and I'm sure that's the case here.  The commutator leaf contact is similar to the Hourly Winding Switch in a Self Winding Clock Co. "Western Union" clock.

Commutator

Electromechanical Toy Engine Commuator Problem

This motor does send current through the spinning flywheel.  The lower leaf is an electrical conductor and the upper leaf is a spring to press it down.  On the flywheel shaft (0.187" OD) there are 2 metal parts with three lobes.  These are surrounded by 3 black insulating parts.  The insulating parts are supposed to keep the lower leaf from making contact except when the pointed lobe sticks up.  But the 3 black parts have worn down to the same shape as the metal parts so this function is no longer working.

The triangular metal parts have a radius 40 mils larger than the shaft at the low points and 100 mills larger at the high points.  If the insulating washer was half way between it would have a radius 70 mills greater than the shaft, or 0.327" dia with a center hole slightly smaller than 0.187".  The insulating washers are about 0.040" thick, but I don't think that's a critical dimension.

How to fix?  Let me know your idea(s).


Toy Engine Flywheel edge view w/o Com parts



Here is an edge view of the flywheel with the communator parts removed from the top shaft.  There's a bump on the OD of the flywheel a little to the left of center, not sure why it's there.
 
Measuring the flywheel is sure easier when you have a couple of 123 blocks.





Getting It Working Step 1

I figured out that the insulating washers really are not needed if the contact arm is positioned exactly in the right spot and the cam is rotated to somewhere near the correct timing.  So after a little experimenting the engine is running, see video below.  At one cam timing the electromagnet turned on when one of the bumps on the flywheel was between the electromagnets.  The power was so great I could not move the flywheel (the frame was warping allowing one of the bumps to tough an electromagnet).  This says the motor can do much better than what you see in the video if the cam timing is adjusted properly and the electrical circuit does not have much resistance. 

I tried to use a bench supply good for 1 amp and the motor barely could over come the frictional losses.  I expect that considerably more than an amp is flowing from the Energizer 529  volt lantern battery.  The 529 data sheet does not have any information about how much current it can source.  See Electromagnet Analysis below.

It's interesting that the sound is very much like an engine rather than like an electric motor.  Every time the electrical circuit is made there's a thump and a different kind of sound when the circuit opens.

There is a lot of sparking at the contact points so a snubber circuit is needed.  There are a number of possible circuits, but it will be interesting to see if one lets the motor run stronger than another.

Video

Electromagnetic Toy Engine 2 minute video on Google of Toy Engine running.


Electromagnetic Toy Engine - Chapter 2 -  Diode 2 minute video on Google of  effect of adding diode across coil


Electromagnet Analysis

Wire:   0.052" dia -> AWG # 16 -> 248.9 feet/Ohm.
Winding dimensions:   1.575" long x 0.880 O.D. x 0.375 I.D.
30 turns on each layer and 5 layers:
Layer
Radius
Cirm
Layer Len
1
.2135
1.34
40.24
2
.2655
1.67
50.0
3
.3175
2.0
59.8
4
.3695
2.32
69.7
5
.4215
2.65
79.5



300"
300" = 25 feet for a resistance of 0.100 per coil or 0.2 Ohms total for the two coils.
Measured with HP 34401 in 4-Wire mode 0.093 and 0.129 for a total of 0.222.

Measuring the voltage across both electromagnets (from the hot coil thumb screw to the commutator leaf) and connecting the Fresh 6 Volt battery to the same two points using different wires (to get a Kelvin connection) shows 1.7 Volts across the pair of coils.  This translates into a current of 8.5 Amps.  The current is being limited by the resistance of the clip leads and the battery internal resistance.
The Red and Black leads connected in series measure 0.10 Ohms.
Reality check 6 Volts - 0.85 V (clip leads) - 1.7 V (coils) = 3.45 Volts.  3.45 V / 8.5 Amps = 0.4 Ohms for the battery internal resistance.
Not accounted for are the resistance of the flywheel to frame joint, the cam to leaf joint (where the sparks are) and the cam to flywheel press fit joint.

While doing the above tests where the electromagnets were energized bypassing the contact points it could be seen that the electromagnets were strong enough to warp the frame and one of the bumps on the flywheel would contact an electromagnet pole.  By placing a round tooth pick between the lower electromagnet washer and the frame on each side the frame is greatly stiffened and this problem goes away.  You can see the tooth picks in the Chapter 2 video above.

No. 6 Dry Cell Works

After measuring the wire supplied in the Built it Yourself! a Real Electric Motor Kit, the wire was 0.085 Ohms and the suggested power source was a single No. 6 Dry Cell.  Connecting an old No. 6 cell to this motor causes it to spin up, not as fast as with the 6 Volt battery, but it's running.  A fresh No. 6 might be just what it needs

Snubber

Diode Across coil

This has the sound of putting a brake on the motor and the flywheel seems to slow down.  The sparks at the cam to leaf contact go away, but at a high price in terms of performance.  See the Chapter 2 Video above.

Resistor Across Coil

Most clocks that contain electromagnets use a resistor with a value about 10 times the coil resistance in parallel with the coil.  When the current source is turned off the coil generates the same current in the opposite polarity.  If there's an open circuit the coil will develop a very high voltage to try and get to that current.  If a resistor is in the circuit the back EMF voltage will be the source current times the resistor value or about 10 times the coil voltage when being driven.

A problem with this method is the wasted energy during normal operation of the electromagnet.

Capacitor Across Coil

Spark ignition engines have used a capacitor across the primary of the spark coil since the early 1900s.  The instant the points open the coil tries to generate a current and it can do that through the capacitor.  As the capacitor charges up the coil is decreasing the current.  The voltage rating of the cap needs to be able to handle whatever voltage the coil makes which may be 10 or more times the source voltage.

Modern Control Circuit

It would be interesting to use a modern control circuit that allowed dynamic adjustment of the cam timing. I think this would result in much more power output and maybe other features.  I'm thinking of ways to do it that would involve opto electronics, power MOSFETs, a PIC micro controller and an LCD display.

A simpler way might be a lever that pivots about the flywheel shaft and carries a couple of photo sensors that detect the bumps on the side of the flywheel.  One photo detector turns on the power and the other turns it off.  By rotating the lever the timing of the turn on can be changed and by moving the second detector relative to the first one the duration of the on time can be controlled.

Patents

The first electric motors are in class 310/46

132 Electric Motor, T. Davenport, Feb 25, 1837, 310/46 -
809 Imporved Method of Changing Poles, Nelson Walkay, Jun 27 1838, - uses Varnished copper wire (First magnet wire?)
1735 Electro-magnetic Machines, Truman Cook, Aug 25, 1840, 310/46 ; 429/10 - commutation by Mercury cups
7287 Electromagnetic Engine, J.H. Lillie, Apr 16 1850, 310/46 -
7879 Electrical Motor, J. Neff, Jan 7 1854, 310/46 - 8 electromagnet radial engine
7950 Electromagnetic Engine, T.C. Avery, Feb 25 1851, 310/46 - 4 electromagnets cause 'X" to rotate
14682 Electrogalvanic Machine for Producing Motion by Galvanic Electricity, M. Vergnes, Apr 15 1856, 310/46 315/313 315/316 - hard to interpert drawings
58960 Electromagnetic Engines, A.P. Berlioz, Oct 16, 1866, 310/46 310/70R - 8 horseshoe PMs working aginst 16 EMs
63380 Electromagnetic Engines, C.J.B. Gaume, Apr 2, 1867, 310/34 - 12 pairs of EMs like a ferris wheel
69880 Electro-magnetic Engine, W. WIckersham, Oct 15, 1867, 310/46 -
78619 Magnetic Engine, L.C. Stuart, Jun 2, 1868, 310/46 - commutator at center and at outside (each end of the EM)
80463 Electromagnetic Engine, A.J. B.  DeMort, Jul 28, 1868, 310/46 -
87835 Electromagnetic Engine, C.J.B. Gaume, Mar 16 1869, 310/46 -
93689 Electromagnetic Engines, Aug 17, 1869, A.E. Dupas, 310/34
958354 Electric Motor, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co (see below)), May 17, 1910, 310/21 ; 310/33 - has the look and feel of a horizontal single cylinder steam engine
96332 Electromagnetic Motors, Nov 2, 1869, 172/36 310/46 318/372 - spinning and fixed EMs + fly ball governer
George holds many printing telegraph patents.  This has a look and feel like an Edison motor used in a printing telegraph
103229 Magnetic Engine, H.M. Paine, May 17, 1870, 310/46 - spiral staircase of EMs work aginst a piller of fixed EMs
105663 Electromagnetic Motors, L. Finger, Jul 26 1870, 310/46 - fixed and rotating EMs in drum arrangement
1084364 Windings for Electrical Machines, Emanuel Rosenberg, Jan 13, 1914, 307/16 ; 322/63; 322/92 - series, parallel tc wiring
112841 Electromagnetic Motor, H.M. Paine, Mar 21, 1871, 310/46 - uses "circular box" to get stiff structure to allow for narrow air gap
118561 Electromagnetic Engines, J.P. Tirrell, Aug 29, 1871, 310/46 -  radial EMs, variable gap for speed control
RE4632 Electromagnetic Engines, J.P. Tirrell, Nov 7 1871 - reissued
119899 Electromagnetic Motors, Oct 10, 1871, 310/46 - M.H. Utley & A. Ross, 310/46 - Radial 6 U EMs rotate within 6 U fixed EMs, 2 metal leaf commutators
122944  Electromagnetic Engines, C.J.B. Gaume, Jan 23, 1872, 310/46 - 3 fixed U EMs work aginst a wheel where the EMs have a "T" core to bridge the gap in the U
124868 Electro-magnetic Engine, W. WIckersham, Mar 9, 1872, 310/46 -
126628 Electromagnetic Engines,  Moses G. Farmer, May 14, 1872, 310/46 - wide flat EMs interdigitated commutator
127369 Electromagnetic Motors, W.H. Richardson, May 28 1872, 310/46 - angled EMs each with it's own contact
129000  Electromagnetic Motors, J.S. Camacho, Jly 16 1872, 310/46 310/219 - ferris wheel with moving EMs parallel to axis
131377 Electromagnetic Motors, A. Schreiber, Sep 17, 1872, 310/46 - two identical assemblies of 8 EMs, one fixed and the other rotating
1490125 Toy Electric Motor, O'Leary, Apr 15 1924, 310/21 ; 104/296; 105/150; 310/29; 446/462 - model railroad
152772 Electromagnetic Motors, W.S. Sims,  Jul 7, 1874, 310/46 340/319 - the air gap is lengthened by making a sawtooth
153456 Electromagnetic Engines, H.M. Paine, Jul 28, 1874, 310/46 - EM cores thin in radial dimension and long tangentially
153700 Electromagnetic Engines, L. Bastet, Aug 4, 1874, 310/46 - 8 spoked wheel with bars on end of spokes bridging gaps on 4 fixed Ems
155062  Electromagnetic Engines, L. Bastet & C.J.B. Gaume, Sep 15, 1874, 310/46 - rotating "T" ends fixed EMs

155396 Electro-Magnetic Engines, Henry Van Hoevenbergh, Sep 29 1874, 310/46 - 2 side by side electromagnets attract a "X" shape and cause it to rotate
Henry holds many patents related to printing telegraphs
looks like the Fairy Electric Engine maybe Henry was an inventor for hire?
156920 Electromagnetic Motors, C.J.B. Gaume, Nov 17, 1874, 310/46 -
156942 Electromagnetic Motors, G.M. Phelps, Nov 17, 1874, 310/46 - George holds many stock ticker patents
Used in a stock ticker transmitter.  When the operator presses a key the motor revolves the shaft thus pulsing the wire a number of time that depends on what character is being sent.
157299 Electromagnetic Motors, W.S. Sims, Dec 1 1874, 310/40R 310/46 - sawtooth poles to increase air gap length
163924  Electric Motor, C.J.B. Gaume, Jun 1 1875, 310/46 - 3 rotating radial EMs that are attracted to parts of the iron frame - very simple
166431 Electromagnetic Engines, A. Tittman, Aug 3, 1875, 310/46 - high wear commuttion switches
166527 Electromagnetic Engines, C.A. Hussey, Aug 10, 1875, 310/46 - PMs with "T" ends, sewing maching motor, non-sparking
1678397 Toy Electric Engine, Joseph Koenig (Metal Ware Corp, Wisconsin), Jul 24 1928, 446/397 ; 310/21; 446/484 - same company made No. 6 Dry Cell Lantern
A No. 6 Dry Cell is in a horizontal cylinder that looks like the boiler,
There are two pair of electro-magnetic coils, one pair on each side of the sheet metal armature,
The direction switch activates the left pair or the right pair.
446/397 is Amusement Devices: Toys/Sounding
310/21 is Electric Generator or Motor Structure/Dynamo-electric.Reciprocating ..With other elements ...Pivoted or flat-spring armature
446/484 is Amusement Devices: Toys/Electric
XXXXXXXXXX Search for these XXXXXXXXXX
1632445 Toy Electric Range, Joseph Koenig (Metal Ware Corp, Wisconsin), Jun 14, 1927, 219/394 - working heating elements, switched by plug
1737050 Toy Electric Range,
1737051 Toy Electric Engine, Joseph Koenig (Metal Ware Corp, Wisconsin),Nov 26, 1929, 310/21 ; 310/32; 446/484
Vertical faux boiler houses an AC line powered transformer
uses the same dual pair of coils hidden inside the sheet metal "engine block"
171087 Electromagnetic Engines, J. Bishop, Dec 14, 1875, 310/236 310/157 310/239 310/244 310/46 318/292 - shaft parallel to 2 fixed Ems with 2 radial EMs rotating - simple
172309 Electromagnetic Motors, J.H. Guest, Jan 18, 1876, 310/115 310/195 310/46 310/67R 451/294 - drum with coils, roller commutator
173561 Electromagnetic Engine, W.E. Sawyer, Feb 15 1876, 310/46 - long poles & Mercury cups
186642  Electromagnetic Motors, D. Ward, Jan 23, 1877, 310/46 - horseshoe PMs and EM attracting iron bars
191781 Electromagnetic Engines, W.E. Sawyer, Jun 12, 1877, 310/46 - toothed circular frame with 4 radial rotating EMs
192626 Stencil-Pen, H.M. Paine, Jul 3 1877, 74/56 310/46 - a 4 radial pole Em rotates and a spiral ramp causes the pen tip to move up and down
193385  Electro-magnetic Motors, A. Shedlock, July 24 1877,
195174 Electromagnetic Engine Commutators, W.E. Sawyer, Sep 11 1877, 310/46-planning for contact wear
211404 Electromagnetic Motors, C.A. Hussey Jan 14, 1879, 310/46 310/89 - rotation axis at right angles to axis of 2 fixed and one central rotating EM
211985 Electromagnetic Engines, C.J.B. Gaume, Feb 4 1879, 310/46 310/269 - 3 radial rotating EMs work aginst 4 iron poles - avoids back pull
217617 Electric-Motor,  J. Hoover, Jul 15 1879, 310/46 - long commutator with multiple contacts along axis
217807 Electro-magnetic Motor, J.C. Ludwig, Jul 22 1879, 310/46 - reversing mechanism
219422  Electro-magnetic Motor, L.G. Wolley, Sep 9 1879, 310/46 - armature is EM which has almost 360 degrees of pole face two fixed EMs or a PM
225395 Electro-magnetic Motor, J.S. Lamar, Mar 9 1880, 310/46 - commutator on seperate shaft from motor
227622 Electro-magnetic Motor, W.W. Griscom, May 18, 1880, 310/46 -huge field winding or dual field winding, "I" shaped armature core (Siemens)
231697 Electro-magnetic Motor, L.G. Wolley, Aug 31 1880, 310/46 -
258818 Electric Motor for Clocks, L.H. Spellier, May 30 1882, 310/46 310/49R - seconds hand ticks each second
259404 Electro-magnetic Motor, G. Little, Jun 13 1882, 310/46 - might be related to stock ticker
263353 Electric Motor, D.T. Piot, Aug 29, 1882, 310/46 - ferris wheel long skinny EMs
269888 Electric Motor, W.L. Silvey, Jan 2, 1883, 310/46 - makes use of attraction and replusion
271502 Electric Motor, A. Millar, Jan 30 1883, 310/46 310/118 310/82 310/83 - radial horseshoe EMs operate on eccentric - complex
275392 Dynamo-Electric Machine, V.E. Keegan, Apr 10 1883,
278760 Rotary Electro Magnetic Motor, J.B. Atwater, Jun 5 1883, 310/46 - complex
279007 279008 Electric Motor, C.C. Peck & W.H. Chapman, Jun 5 1883, 310/46 - armature rolls on and in direct contact with pole pieces
279045 Electro-magnetic Motor, W.H. Thomas, Jun 5 1883, 310/46 - long skinny coils
284255 Electric Motor, L.W. Stockwell, 310/46 310/238 310/239 - similar to the toy motor kit, but uses loops of wire for commutation
286873 Electro-magnetic Motor, S.F. Van Choate, Oct 16 1883, 310/46 310/67R -commutate by switching between two rings of EMs
291636 Electric Motor, L.W. Stockwell, Jan 8 1884,  310/46 244/135R -2 field poles 4 armature poles - continuous attraction, not interrupted - modern looking
293556 Electric Motor, W. Bradbury, Feb 12 1884, 310/46 - no dead spots so self starting
293929 Electric Motor, W.T. Waters, Feb 19 1884, 310/46 - 4 pole armature 2 pole field wired to allow start/stop/forward/reverse switching
294066 Electro-magnetic Machine, - generating electric power
294717 Electric Motor, M. Bacon assignor to the Novelty Electric Co, Mar 3, 1884, 310/46 - intended to be a toy, not a working motor
an armature with a number of legs that are attracted to one of two electromagnets to rotate a shaft.
294817 Retouching Machine, C.H. Shaffer, Mar 1 1884, 396/655 310/46 - similar to the Stencil Pen above
298130 Electric Motor, L.W. Stockwell (Cleveland Electric Motor Co), May 6 1884, 310/46 - calls 291636, improved armature winding and brush arrangement
298922 Armature for Electric Motors and Dynamo-Electric Machines, J.C. Vetter, May 20 1884, 310/46 310/268 - series magnetic path
300648 Electric Motor, H.B. Sheridan, Jun 17 1884, 310/46 - dental tools and sewing machines more torque at low speeds
302793 Electric Motor, E.T. Starr (S.S. White Dental Mfg Co), Jul 29 1884, 310/46 - control both speed and direction
306805 Electric Motor, J.B. Atwater, Oct 21 1884, 310/46 310/218 - old fashion looking ferris wheel type
307387 Electric Motor, W.W. Griscom, Oct 28 1884, 310/46 - calls 227622, changing polarity of filed as armature revolves
308534 Electric Motor, G. Trouve, Nov 25 1884, 310/46 - eccentric (elypitical) faces on either a Seimans 2-pole armature or on the field poles to make self starting
309522 Electric Motor, W.H. Chapman (Chapman Electric Motor Co), Dec 23 1884, 310/34 - cursrent flows in two paths
309562 Electric Motor, C.C. Peck (Chapman Electric Motor Co), Dec 23 1884, 310/34 -wedge shaped EMs
315161 Electro-magnetic Motor, C.G. Perkins (Imperial Electric Light Co), Apr 17 1885, 5 parallel connected field EMs = 5 poles & 4 iron armature poles.
317249 Electromagnetic Reciprocating Engine, C.J. Van DePole, May 5, 1885 , 310/34 ; 40/469
318589 Electric Motor, L.G. Wolley, May 26 1885, 310/46 -
321049 Electric Motor, J.M. Pendelton (Equitable Electric Co), Jun 30 1885, 310/46 - toy motor, 3-pole armature, similar to the Gilbert
323652 Electromagnetic Motor, M.G. Farmer, Aug 4, 1885 - supposed to be a real motor
327797 Electric Motor, M. Immisch, Oct 6 1885, 310/46 - 3-pole arm  4 pole Field with overlaping segments for equal pull
331880 Electric Motor, W.S. Hill, Dec 8 1885, 310/46 - uniform pull
332668 Electric Motor or Dynamo-Electric Machine, W. Main, Dec 15 1885, 310/46 310/164  - improved small DCmotor
describes two classes of motors and their advantages and disadvantages
335998 Electric Motor, F.E. Fisher, Feb 9 1886, 310/46 -
338622 Electric Motor, G.H. Stout, Mar 23 1886, 310/46 - 2 field poles with large EMs & 4 armature poles
338976 338977 Electro-magnetic Motor, V.E. Keegan, Mar 30 1886, 310/46 - calls 275392 but more poles and better symmetry
343176 Electric Motor, E.T. & D. Higham, Jun 8 1886, 310/46 310/180 - using two sizes of wire to get in more turns slot iron armature
343441
343444 Electric Motor, J. Doyle, Jun 8 1886, 310/40R 310/46 - large horseshoe magnets
343487 Electric Motor, H.M. Paine, Jun 8 1886, 310/46 -
344262 Electric Motor, J.E. Emley, Jun 22 1886, 310/46 - bar rotates inside coil
349563 Electric Motor, A. Bossard, Sep 21 1886, 310/46 -
349654 Electric Motor, V.E. Keegan, Sep 21 1886, 310/46 - cylindeer with notches on end and coil is field, EMs armature
351229 Electric Motor, H. Walter, Oct 19 1886, 310/112 310/46 - side by side armatures with relative rotation of half of pitch
354111 Electric Motor, N.H. Edgerton (Edgerton Electric Motor Co), Dec 14 1886, 310/240 310/46 310/49R - 3 pole armature, fork commutator brush, enclosed design,
355024 Electric Motor, H.M. Paine, Dec 28 1886, 310/46 - modern filed coil winding, two connected brushes on commutator
356878 Electric Motor, E.J. Huston (Thompson Huston Electric Co), 310/46 310/64 - laminated core made from this sheets insulated form each other
362322 Electric Motor,  R.J. Sheehy, May 3 1887, 310/46 - "X" rotates over 3 EMs - might be stock ticker related
364086 Electric Motor,  G.F. Card, May 31 1887, 310/46 - improvement in Pacinotti type electric motors
366021 Electromagnetic Motor, H.M. Paine, Jul 5 1887, 310/46 340/319 - large Ems and leave gap
374580 Revolving Electric Hammer Tool, W.G.A. Bonwill (S.S. White Dental Mfg Co), Dec 13 1887, 433/99 173/100 173/117 310/46
375560 Electric Motor, J.F. McLaughlin, Dec 27 1887, 310/46 - has the feel of a stock ticker motor
382589 Electric Motor, G.F. Card, May 8 1888, 310/46 310/237 - looks like dental motor


   ------- Patents to Nicola Tesla  May 1, 1888 -------
381968 Electromagnetic Motor,                 310/102R
381969         "                    "                        318/705 ; 318/700
381970 System of Electrical Distribution,  307/17
382279 Electromagnetic Motor,
382280 Electrical Transmission of Power, 318/750
382281 Electrical Transmission of Power, 318/700
382282 Method of Distributing and Converting Electrical Currents, 307/17

385675 Electric Motor and Dynamo Machine, O. Lugo, Jul 3 1889, 310/46 - each EM is connected to others both in armature and field, complex wiring
389207 Electric Motor, A.E. Eastwick, Sep 11 1888, 310/46 - 6 radial EMs for armature 2 parallel EMs for field, C clamp for bench mounting, laminated core,
391590 Electric Motor, J. Doyle, Oct 23 1888, 310/46 - improvements to 343444
393373 Electric Motor, F.J. Keeler & J.W. Carnes, Nov 27 1888, 310/46 15/246 310/228 74/569 -
394075 Electric Motor and Dynamo Machine, O. Lugo, Dec 4 1888, 310/46 - 7 Field & 4 Arm or 4 field & 3 arm or 5 field & 4 arm EMs and their cross wiring
maximizing the number of magnetic filed lines being cut done in pairs
395299 Electric Motor, D.F. Sweet, Dec 25 1888, 310/46 - maximizing magnetic field
399059 Electric Motor, O. Lugo, 310/46 - more on the wiring, but he's using long solenoid EMs
402290 Electric Motor, F. Yeiser, Apr 30 1889, 310/46 -  commutator looks like an automobile cam shaft
404465 Electric Motor, C.S. Bradley, Jun 4 1889, 310/166 12/142C 310/211 310/46 388/836 - instead of a PM or Em field magnet he uses Focault currents derived from the armature
404533 Electric Motor and Regulator, A. Gartner (Continental Motor and Electrical Co), Jun 4 1889, 310/46 - with fly-ball governor
406874 Electric Motor, J. Buckley, Jul 16 1889, 310/46 -
407272 Electric Motor, Leonidas G. Woolley, Jul 16 1889, 310/46 -  may be rail road related since he was first to patent a RR electric headlight-looks strong
411030 Combined Electric Motor and Blower, C.J. Hirliman, Sep 17 1889, 417/353 310/40R 310/46 310/66 310/67R 417/410.1 417/420 417/423.1
411833 Electric Motor, C.C. Peck (Giant Electric Motor Co), Oct 1 1889, 310/46 310/237 310/247 - for heavy work on railway cars
419245 Electric Motor, S.C.C. Currie (United Electric Improvement Co), Jan 14 1890, 310/46 310/220 - armature driven +, 0, -, 0, +
419808 Electric Motor, LeRoy S. White, 21 Jan 1890, 310/46 - 


   ------- Patents to Nicola Tesla  Dec 3, 1889 -------
416191 Electromagnetic Motor, Dec 3, 1889, 318/734
416192 Method of Operating Electromagnetic Motors, Dec 3, 1889
416193 Electromagnetic Motor, Dec 3, 1889 310/172 ; 318/781
416194 Electric Motor, Dec 3, 1889, 310/166
416195 Electromagnetic Motor, Dec 3, 1889
538351 Electric Engine, L.M. Sabin, Apr 30, 1895, 310/24 ; 310/35 - for rail road use, two cylinders and a crank
555190 Alternating Motor, N. Tesla, Feb 26, 1896,

533108 Electric Motor, C. Writ, Jan 29, 1895, 310/19 ; 310/34 - more of a clock movement
------------------------ Patents Related to the Electromagnetic Toy Engine -----------------
580505 Excavating Machine, J.L. Potter & H.G. Hawekotte, Apr 13, 1897, 212/80 ; 212/115; 212/74 - Steam donkey add on to make excavator
592779 Steam-Boiler, G.P Hawekotte, Nov 2, 1897, 122/172
812949 Electromagnetic Power Generator, Joseph L. Potter, Feb 20, 1906, 310/22 ; 310/33- appears to be of toy scale
858211 Electromagnetic Locomotive, J.L. Potter assignor to Harry G. Hawekotte, June 25, 1907, 180/65.6
872251 Electromagnetic Power Generator, J.L. Potter assignor to Harry G. Hawekotte, Nov 6, 1907, 310/21 ; 310/32 -
uses many conventional electromagnets - going by the thumb nuts this may be a model
872511 Toy Aerial Swing, H.G. Hawekotte & H.W. Klausmann, Dec 3, 1907, 472/7 - an electromagnet powered swing
882681 Electromagnetic Toy Engine, H.G. Hawekotte & H.W. Klausmann, Mar 24, 1908, 310/46 ; 310/1; 310/83 -
a flywheel is powered by two electromagnets, one on either side.  The comunating is done by one of two contact arms selected by a level, the direction of motion is reversed by throwing the lever.  The output pully is on a shaft that's geared down from the main shaft.
------------------------ End of Patents Related to the Electromagnetic Toy Engine ----------
1166688 Toy or Working Model, F. Hornby assignor to Meccano, Jan 4, 1916, 403/218 ; 182/222; 403/169; 403/391 - basic Meccano elements
D49308 Design for a Girder-Strip, F. Hornby assignor to Meccano, July 4, 1916, D25/132 - basic girder for building
1196238 Motor for Structural Toys, F. Hornby assignor to Meccano, Aug 29, 1916, 74/354 - spring wind clockwork motor
1202388 Toy or Working Model, F. Hornby assignor to Meccano, Oct 24, 1916, 310/1 ; 310/237; 310/75R -
a single coil electromagnet, using a laminated core, drives a rotating armature.
1223375 Electrical Toy, G. S. ELLIOTT, Apr 24 1917, 310/46 ; 310/236; 74/5.47-
1226835 Electrical Toy, A.B. Wilder, May 22, 1917, 40/421 ; 446/322 - No. 6 Dry Cell powers electromagnet causing parrot to rock back & forth
1291819 Electric Motor, M. Fogel, A. Ascher, Jan 21 1919, 310/23 ; 310/34 - has the appearance of a horizontal steam engine where the electromagnet is inside the pseudo steam cylinder.
1760498 Toy Electric Motor, C.T. Hoffman, May 27, 1930, 446/397 ; 310/21; 446/484
Has the appearance of a horizontal stationary steam engine and makes a "gas engine sound".
2820160 Solenoid Powered Motor, E.E. Erie, Jan 14, 1958, 310/23
an electromagnet operating as a solenoid oscillates back and forth as it drives a disk which turns a shaft.  The solenoid is only powered for a fraction of the time so battery life is long.  A No. 6 battery is shown as the power source.
2894154 Electric Motor V.P. McVoy, July 7 1959, 310/23 ; 310/34 - has the appearance of a stationary vertical steam engine, supposed to be a real motor.
3469163 Moving Coil Direct Current Recriprocating Motor, J.W. Mathews, Sep 23, 1969, 318/127 ; 310/27; 318/132

Crocker Wheeler Motor Patents

451884 Electric Motor or Dynamo-Electric Machine, S.S. Wheeler, May 5, 1891, 310/267
451885 Method of Constructing Field Magents, S.S. Wheeler, May 5, 1891,29/607 ; 269/269; 310/254
451894 Electric Motor or Dynamo-Electric Machine, William F. Cpllins, May 5, 1891, 310/267
455267 Automatic Regulator for Electric Motor or Dynamo-Electric Machine, S.S. Wheeler, Jun 30, 1891, 310/220 ; 310/241
480681 Electrical Spool,
494978 Electric Motor, Francis B. Crocker, Apr 4, 1893, 416/110 ; 310/91 - Illustration shows fan
460076 Controlling Switch for Electric Motors, S.S. Wheeler, Sep 22, 1891, 318/252
503106 Armature for Dynamo-Electric Machines and Motors, S.S. Wheeler, Aug 8, 1893, 310/267
503690 Apparatus for Controlling Electric Motors,
537855 Electric Applaince for Elvators, - uses the C.W. Reversable Rehostat
575918 Brush Carrier for Dynamo-Electric Machines, S.S. Wheeler, Jan 26, 1897, 310/240
591343 Indirect Regulation of Dynamo-Electric Machines,
618853 Brush-Holders for Dynamo-Electric Machines,
654142 Brake,
741895 Magnetic Clutch,
752634 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines,
783999 Electric Machines,
792974 Counte-rshaft Attachment for Electric Motors,
827023 Method of Attaching Gears to Shafts,
839060 Machine for Bending Metal Strips Edgewise, G.S. Dunn, Dec 18 1906, 72/142 ; 140/92.2
Patent Number Title Issue date
4131988 Method of manufacturing a dynamoelectric field member Jan 2, 1979
4279277 Apparatus for manufacturing a dynamolelectric field member Jul 21, 1981
4312387 Apparatus for making dynamoelectric field member Jan 26, 1982
4665952 Apparatus and method for fabricating a low voltage winding for a toroidal transformer May 19, 1987
4683919 Apparatus and method for fabricating a high voltage winding for a toroidal transformer Aug 4, 1987
4699184 Apparatus and method for fabricating a high voltage winding for a toroidal transformer Oct 13, 1987
871758 Bridging Blocks for Dynamo-Electric Machines, E. Heitmann & F.W. Young, Nov 19 1907, 310/214
879927 Pole-shoe for Dynamo-Electric Machines,
891199 Boring Machine,
941182 Bridging Block for Dynamo-Electric Machines,
1159567 Joint Insulator,
1236511 Bearing Surface for Machinery,
1436329 Motro Starting Switch,
1488448 Motor Stop or Relese for Electric Switches,
1761159 Electric Motor,
1773285 Rotor for Induction Motors,
1792449 Fluid Conductor Motor,
1948546 Television Motor, Feb 27 1934, 310/163 ; 310/126; 310/166; 310/209 -
2061600 Internal Combustion Engine,

Manhattan Electric Supply Co

Reverese Time Page - MESCO Toy Electric Motors
These are Electro-Magnetic engines, i.e. they have a strong resemblense to steam engines.

Patents by Charles E. Avery who invented the 958354 Electric Motor (Electromagnetic engine):

774463 Window-Spring, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Nov 8, 1904, 200/61.75 -
Burglar Alarm window switch
776638 Portable Electric Device, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Dec 6, 1904, 200/60 ; 200/505; 362/206 -
Circuit Closure for a Flash Light
802702 Polarity Indicator, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Oct 24, 1905, 324/133 -
a glass tube with platnium electrones in each end filled with an unspecified liquid that changes color when current flows
824700 Flush Plug and Receptacle, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Jul 3 1906, 439/142 ; 174/67 -
An early try at a household receptacle that fits a wall box, circular socket & plug
958354 Electric Motor, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), May 17, 1910, 310/21 ; 310/33 -
has the look and feel of a horizontal single cylinder steam engine
1011710 Terminal Cutout for Electrical Batteries, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Dec 12, 1911, 439/828 -
attempt at a spring clip for Dry Batteries (See No. 6 Dry Cell)
references 311630 Electric Battery, Young, Feb 3, 1885, 429/164 ; 429/230 - Leclanché Battery  modification
This probably was an attempt to get around the Fahnestock patents:
845268 Spring Terminal-Clip, J. Schade Jr. Assigned to Fahnestock Electric Co, a corp of W. VA, 26 Feg 1907, 439/828
RE12642 Spring Terminal-Clip, J. Schade Jr. Assigned to Fahnestock Electric Co, a corp of W. VA, Apr 23, 1907, 439/828
1148348 Electric Horn, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Jul 27, 1915, 340/388.6 ; 340/388.8 -
Ah-OO-GAH horn
1155869 Gong, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Oct 5, 1915, 340/398.2 -
mechanically driven, electrically actuated (maybe central fire station)
1194931 Signal Box, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Aug 15, 1916, 340/309 ; 185/40B -
district fire alarm pull box
1338548 Electromagnet, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Apr 27, 1920, 335/247 ; 335/276; 340/388.2 -
laminated "U" silicon steel core, two parallel coils, runs on AC with minimum chatter
1413374 Electromagnet, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Apr 18, 1922, 310/29 ; 340/401.1 -
laminated silicon steel core, works on AC where the EM reasonant frequency is a sub harmonic of the AC frequency
1518042 Toggle Switch, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Dec 2, 1924, 200/440 ; 200/454 -
fits household electrical box, no rivets, parts interchange with push button switch
1602370 Electric Receptacle, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Oct 5 1926, 439/223 -
to work with standard parallel or tandum plugs, single piece contacts, household use

Patents assigned to Manhattan Electrical Supply Co

650172 TELEGRAPHIC SOUNDER, ALLEN A. DITTMAR, May 22, 1900, 178/100 -
long after 159894 Telegraph-Sounder 178/100 J. H. Bunnell, Feb. 16, 1875 - lever Strike screw is directly over center of arch
More patents on my Telegraph web page
717203 INDUCTION-COIL OR LIKE INSTRUMENT, Otto H. Huebel, Dec 30, 1902, 361/268 ; 336/65 -
This is in class 361 ELECTRICITY: ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND DEVICES and
class 336 INDUCTOR DEVICES
so is intended as an Ignition Coil
774463 WINDOW-SPRING - see above, burglar alarm switch
776638 PORTABLE ELECTRIC DEVICE, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Dec 6, 1904, 200/60 ; 200/505; 362/206 -
Circuit Closure for a Flash Light
802675 ELECTRIC BELL - could be an add on to a manual clapper bell
802702 POLARITY-INDICATOR - see above
824700 FLUSH PLUG AND RECEPTACLE
958394 APPARATUS FOE FILLING Dry BATTEEIES
1011710 TERMINAL CUT FOR ELECTRIC BATTERIES
1093468 SEPARABLE ATTACHMENT-PLUG
1130626 SEPARABLE ATTACHMENT PLUGS
1148044 CLIP DEVICE
1148348 Electric Horn, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Jul 27, 1915, 340/388.6 ; 340/388.8 -
Ah-OO-GAH horn
1155869 Gong, Charles E. Avery (Manhattan Electrical Supply Co), Oct 5, 1915, 340/398.2 -
mechanically driven, electrically actuated (maybe central fire station)

1168826 ELECTRIC LANTERN - No. 6 type
1188384 ELECTRIC FAN Jun 1916- add-on oscillating mechanisim for ordinary fans
1195079 ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR-CLIP
1201939 BATTERY BOX - springs are applied to the No. 6 Dry Cell terminals then when the box lid is closed to makes contace
1234799 CAPPED CARBON PENCIL
1236480 FACE-PLATE FOR ELECTRICAL WALL-RECEPTACLES
1242470 TELEGRAPH KEY - replaceable points
1257925 PUSH SWITCH
1281218 RESISTANCE ELEMENT - heater for curling iron
1284792 ELECTRIC HAIR-CURLER, Nov 1918 - classical curling iron
1297919 ELECTROMAGNET
1338548 ELECTROMAGNET
1357926 BINDING POST FOR ELECTRIC WIRES
1359280 DETACHABLE CONNECTOR
1385928 WIRE-TERMINAL
1413374 ELECTROMAGNET
1425344 ELECTRIC TOASTER
1518041 ELECTRIC SWITCH
1518042 TOGGLE SWITCH
1549120 DRY CELL
1559777 LOUD SPEAKER - telephone
1563628 DRY CELL
1567561 DRY CELL
1570420 ELECTRICAL CONTACT MAKER AND BREAKER
1578891 DBY CELL
1582567 ELECTRODE
1582691 Terminal Connection for Electrodes - like for a No. 6 Dry Cell
1602370 ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE
1628045 ELECTRONIC DISCHARGE DEVICE
1647364 ELECTRONIC DEVICE
1654255 ADVERTISING SIGN SYSTEM
1647355 CONNECTING DEVICE
1664107 ELECTBIC BELL
1664170 AEROPLANE GUIDING LIGHT
1671614 DOOR CLOSING AND CHECKING DEVICE AND THE LIKE
1682335 ATTACHMENT PLUG
1697339 PBOCESS OF MANUFACTURING ELECTRONIC DEVICES - degree of vacuum determined by measuring current between two electrodes inside glass tube, Neon sign related
1706135 ELECTRONIC DEVICE L.S. Baker, Mar 19 1929, 313/573 ; 252/502; 252/510; 313/240; 313/311; 313/632; 313/634 -
Rectifier made from Aluminum foil and carbon electrodes in Neon filled tube
1715326 ELECTRODE FOR DISCHARGE TUBES
1722915 SIGN RECEPTACLE
1724584 LUMINOUS-TUBE SIGN - lettering on outside of tube
1733514 DOORCHECK - automatic door closer
1758516 GAS-FILLED TUBE
1769024 ELECTRICAL-DISCHARGE DEVICE - full wave rectifier tube operates at high voltages
1769025 MANUFACTURE OP LUMINESCENT TUBES - removing impurities from Neon
1769135 PACKAGE WRAPPING AND SEALING MACHINE - Malted Milk tablets are wrapped and wax sealed to keep out moisture
D44935 HANDLE FOR ELECTRIC SWITCHES
1807607 DOORCHECK
1850585 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE DEVICE
1858737 Electric Discharge Device - Neon sign terminal
D65913 FLASH LIGHT  Nov 4, 1924

Related

Little Borther Toy Engine

This is a photo from eBay of what appears to be the little brother to the above Toy Engine.   If you have one of these for sale let me know.  The coils appear to be shorter and use smaller wire then the above Toy Engine, but it's hard to tell.  This little brother engine was shown running from a 6 volt battery.

Called the H-K Style L.





Gilbert DC 3-pole Electro-magnetic Machine - used with early Erector Sets & a larger small appliance motor (maybe also Gilbert).
MESCO 1011 Toy Engine - works like a steam engine
Toy Motor Kit & modern version as well as Science First demonstartion motor -
Weeden DC 2-pole Electro-magnetic Machine -
No. 6 Dry Cell - and  Flash Amps as measured with Pocket Ampmeters

Links

Electric Beam Engine

 Walter Anderson DIY
Old Model Company  - UK kits for early UK electric engines, one based on patent
    10480 Improvement in Electro-magnetic Engines, Charles G. Page, Jan 31, 1854, 310/21 -  Beam Engine
    Institute of Chemistry - The heavy spoke flywheel is 3 3/4” in diameter. The horizontal beam is 6 1/2” long. - page also has photo of patent model

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