Locks have a strong relationship to Cryptography. I also have web pages about crypto machines and crypto patents. In both cryptography and locks there is a constant contest between those who are trying to protect something and those who are trying to defeat the protection. Some people promote the idea of "security through obscurity" (Wiki) both in cryptography and locks but it's not a good idea.
Many years ago I got the book "Surley you're joking, Mr. Feynman!" (Wiki, Amazon) because it has information on combination locks. I highly recommend this book.
Started this web page after watching some Defcon videos, see References below.
There's a saying about knots something like "A good knot is easy to tie, serves a specific purpose and is easy to untie". A lock works in a similar way. That's to say a good lock is easy (and as inexpensive as possible) to use, serves it's purpose and is easy to unlock. Locks that fail to meet all these requirements will not be successful. - Brooke
There are various types of locks (Wiki) Lock Picking (Wiki), Snap gun (Wiki), Bumping (Wiki), Locksport (Wiki),
Very old locks work this way. The idea is to have a part of the key that gets blocked by the lock mechanism. Typically any key that fits the lock can be made to work all similar locks by removing material from the key. Very poor security.
Warding is also used in combination with the other types of keys shown below. This is done by the shape of the key opening and the cross sectional shape of the keyway. So there can be many locks that have the same pin tumbler coding but require different keys. This is usually done by manufacturer, i.e. a Schlage key (Wiki) has a different cross section than a Kwikset key, &Etc.
Pin Tumbler (Wiki)
In the U.S. most house and pad locks are of the pin tumbler type. Most of these can be picked, see YouTube: Bosnia Bill -
12932 Bank Lock, Linus Yale Sr., May 22, 1855, 70/129; 70/352; 70/427; 70/DIG.17
Wafer Tumbler (Wiki)
Uses washer shaped parts to act in a similar way to the pins in the above design. The wafers move up and down like pins, not in rotation like a combination lock.Usually found in low cost locks in file cabinets, cam locks or vehicle doors and ignition switches. Some of the wafers only move in one direction (the key can be symmetrical) or move both ways (the key is asymmetrical and can only be installed one way).
YouTube: Bosnia Bill: Beating Wafer Locks (for Beginners) - How to Pick the American H10 Double Wafer (double sided) -
the Detex Watchman's clocks have a wafer lock to keep the watchman from getting inside so they typically come locked w/o that key.
Disc Tumbler (Wiki)The disks act in a way very similar to the wheels in a combination lock and need to be turned the correct amount to align the notches at the edge of the wheel so a side bar can fall and open the bolt. These offer fairly high security. Commonly called Abloy type locks.
Examples are the S&G Environmental padlock or the Abloy padlock.
Abloy Padlocks - come in grades 6 (highest security) to grade 2 (lowest security) (they don't make grade 1 padlocks) - YouTube channel, some models may be susceptible to punching - Exploiting Abloy's Design Defect
Fig 1 Disc Cam Lock (eBay <$10, motif2014)
Fig 1 Abloy Sentry PL321/50B-KA 35GP52 Padlock
Fig 1 Abloy Sentry
Disk Tumbler Patents
2217047 Lock, Fitz Gerald John W, Briggs & Stratton Corp, Oct 8, 1940 - rotating disk lock
3789638 Rotary disc tumbler lock construction, Cohn R, Roberts M, Ward J, Locking Syst Inc, Feb 5, 1974 -
4127996 Key profile system, Henrikki Malminen, Kaarlo Martikainen, Oy Wartsila Ab, Dec 5, 1978 - assigned to Abloy 1990
4351172 Cylinder lock mechanism, Kaarlo Martikainen, Oy Wartisila Ab, Sep 28, 1982 - assigned to Abloy 1990
4686843 Cylinderlock-key-combination, Kaarlo Martikainen, Kyosti Nevalainen, Oy Wartsila Ab, Aug 18, 1987 - assigned to Abloy 1990
5490405 Cylinder lock--key--combination, Seija Ramo, Kyosti Nevalainen, Pekka Vehvilainen, Abloy Security Ltd Oy, Feb 13, 1996
6799447 Cylinder lock-key-combination, Pekka Mielonen, Seppo Kiiski, Abloy Oy, Oct 5, 2004 -
8485006 Disc tumbler cylinder lock and key combination, Seppo Kiiski, Abloy Oy, Jul 16, 2013 - Protec2 system with ball bearing in key to only allow turning the key when it's all the way in.
Chubb invented a lever lock that was commonly used to lock doors. They also made padlocks.
Locks invented in the UK and thought secure for many decades, but were picked in 1851 by Hobbs (Wiki).
National Insecurity - article about the Crystal Place Exhibition of 1851 and lock-picking of Bramah Challenge lock by the American Hobbs.
Construction of Locks and Safes by A.C. Hobbs was reprinted in 1970
The Bramah lock uses a cylindrical key and what amounts to lever wafers. A precursor to the modern tubular lock (Wiki).
4196606 Bramah locks is a modern patent based on the Bramah idea and aimed at high security applications
The modern Bramah lock keys have slots cut into a tubular body and so are susceptible to accumulating dirt and lint in the slots, thi smar or may not be a problem?
These are very similar to the Bramah lock except instead of using lever wafers like the Bramah lock, the modern tubular lock uses pin tumblers. They became infamous when the Kryptonite bicycle lock (Wiki) could be opened with the plastic barrel of a Bic pen. It turns out that tubular locks have an inherent weakness in that if made incorrectly (cheaply) they are susceptible to self impressioning.
Combination Lock (Wiki), Safe-Cracking (Wiki), Password Guessing (Wiki), Safe (Wiki), UL 768 (Lock Wiki)
UL Group 2: moderate resistance to unauthorized opening
UL Group 1: High degree of resistance to unauthorized opening
UL Group 1R: High degree of resistance to unauthorized opening including X-ray (but probably not neutron imaging (See References Safe Cracking w/o a Trace).
51973 Permutation Lock, James Sargent and H.W. Covert,
57574 Permutation Lock, James Sargent, Aug 28, 1866, 70/329; 70/303A -
RE4696 Jan 2, 1872, 70/322
200070 Improvement in tumblers for permutation-locks, J. Loch, Feb 5, 1878 - Easy combination change
2575674 Permutation lock, Harry C Miller, Filed: Mar 26, 1949, Pub: Nov 20, 1951, 70/284, 70/323, 70/303.00A, 70/333.00R -
"The primary object of the present invention is to provide a combination lock in which a manipulation of the dial will not give any indication of the position of the gates in any of the tumblers". Model: 8400?
2807954 Combination lock, Miller Harry C, Filed: Jul 6, 1954 Pub: Oct 1, 1957, 70/333.00R, 70/303.00R, 70/323 - "Another object of the present invention is the provision of a novel combination lock of the type having means preventing engagement of the fence with the tumblers during rotation of the tumblers,"
3237435 Tumbler wheels for combination locks, Paul George D, Sargent & Greenleaf, Mar 1, 1966, - plastic tumblers X-Ray proof (but not neuron proof)
After the Mas-Hamilton Soft-Drill (Way Back Machine: photos, software, Review), the inventors worked on mechanical improvements to the The S&G 6730 or the LaGard 3330 to made them resistant to the Soft-Drill. Things like adding a magnet that would be sensitive to the mounting magnets used on the Soft-Drill, but they eventually developed an electronic lock, the XO-7.
Time Lock (Wiki),
"Time locks were originally created to prevent criminals from kidnapping and torturing the person(s) who knows the combination, and then using the extracted information to later burgle the safe or vault, or to stop entry by authorized staff at unauthorized times." For that function they work OK, but for times when you need a safe opened on a Sunday, like 7 Dec 1941, they present a big problem.Time-delay Combination Lock (Wiki)
"Unlike the time lock, which unlocks at a preset time (as in the case of a bank vault), time-delay locks operate each time the safe is unlocked, but the operator must wait for the set delay period to elapse before the lock can be opened. Time delay safes are most commonly used in businesses with high cash transactions."
Fig 1 Unknown make & Model
Delay of 15, 20, 25 or 30 minutes set by screw position.
There are two independent escapements and drive trains including
separate mainsprings for redundancy. This is the same size as a
Group 2 lock bock and piggybacks onto it with a coupling between
the wheel at the top of the left unit and the drive cam on the combo
lock. Wound as part of dialing the second number.
See: Mosler 3702551
S&G Time Delay
S&G Time Delay
S&G Time Delay
S&G Time Delay
Unadjustrd Twenty Four (24) Jewels
Made in Switzerland for
Herman D. Steel Company
Philadelphia, Pa, U.S.A.
There seems to be two ways to change the combination on these UL 768 Group 2 combination locks which is clear from the location of the change key hole on the back cover.
The S&G method requires using a "change key" index mark that's at about 11 O'clock relative to the normal unlocking index at 12 O'clock.
In the Diebold method you just dial the normal combination as usual.
The location of the change key hole is different for each of the above.
All the below locks have common mounting dimensions and would fit on the same display/practice stand.
Combo Attacks (Wiki: Safe-cracking)
There are two kinds of attack.
One where there is no sign after the opening that the safe was opened. This is a huge problem when information is being protected since you do not know it has been stolen. It's also a huge problem if valuables are stolen and there's no sign of a break-in since the insurance company will think it was an inside job.
The other type of attack is when you do know that the safe was opened. This is most commonly when valuables are being stolen.
The idea was to pour nitroglycerin (Wiki) into the crack between the door and safe/vault body and the explosion should blow the door off. I'm guessing one countermeasure to this was the round door money safe where the door flange is similar to a Morse Taper (Wiki) where there would be zero distance between the door and frame when the door is closed and the only way to open the door is by a force from inside the vault pushing out. That's to say you can not pull on the outside of the door to open it.
The idea is to cut off the dial and use a punch and sledge hammer to drive the spindle out of the lock removing the lock and allowing the door to open. There are many patents for various "re-locking" devices to protect against this.
Some Yale and Mosler combination locks have the wheel pack attached to the rear lock cover, maybe for this reason?
The early locks where the fence rides on the circumference of the wheels, like my antique Herman safe, can easily be manipulated by applying a slight force on the opening handle while turning the dial and feeling the movement when the fence hits a gate in the wheel. This will tell you one or more numbers of the combination greatly reducing the combination space. Long time delay, up to 120 hours) clockwork additions to the combination lock were a fix for this problem, but then on Sunday, 7 Dec 1941 there were war plans in safes that could not be opened until the following Monday because of time locks.
At some point the drive cam became larger in diameter than the tumbler wheels so that the fence would never contact the wheels and so no information about the gates could be determined since the fence nose can only drop after all the gates have been aligned. But by measuring the gap between the left and right contact points where the lever nose contacts the notch in the drive cam you can find the gates on all the wheels.
If the combination is set to all the same number such as N - N - N then after spinning the dial CCW at least four times all the notches are aligned. When you stop on N all the notches are aligned with the gate. Turning right opens the lock. This is a single number combination. It may be the default combination on some Mosler locks. Note you could easily check for a single number by spinning 4 turns CCW and stopping on all the numbers like this:4 turns CCW stopping on 0
4 turns CCW stopping on 1
4 turns CCW stopping on 2
. . . .
4 turns CCW stopping on 99
But if you know the tolerance you could use a shorter list of numbers.
For Fig 2 & Fig 3 see Field Expedient Lock Stand below
Fig 5 Note the location of the change key hole compared to the S&G R6700 (Fig 6)
To change the combo on the Diebold 177 combination is dialed using the normal index, but for the S&G the "change index" needs to be used for dialing the combination. This difference is reflected in the location of the change key hole on the cover.
The relocking spring on the bolt at upper left and it's boss on the back of the cover plate can be seen. If the back plate is removed the bolt will be held in the open position. That could happen, like here or if the spindle was "punched" out. LaGuard uses the same relock patented design. When reassembling the lock after removing it the "smith" did not screw it in all the way. Note key change hole at the lower right of the back cover. Therefore a "change combo index must be dialed" like on the S&G.
La Guard Model 3390SNZ
3390 Series Group 2M
S: UL/Vds Class 1/EN1300 Class A
N: No Switch
Z: parameter not used
Note location of the change key hole, like the S&G so uses a Change Index.
See dial photo at left for change index.
YouTube: S&G 6730 Combination Lock Installation,
YouTube - Combo: 50-50-50 with sound -
Inside correct combo, bolt back
Spline key in VU (Vertical Up) so photo is upside down.
Dial with Key Lock
Inside back of R6700
Change key access hole is a square with an added notch.
Most of the change key has this cross section.
Back side bolt retracted. Note small round hole near upper left corner for change key round nose. Not sure why the other small hole. Note silver color plug between the spindle hole and bolt. It's directly behind the torque adjustment. Is that what it's for? Let me know about the above.
Fig 6 S&G U8 change key (Marked: IL Co 3)
Fig 7 Change key ready to be turned
Fig 8 Seated change key.
The relocker is engaged, bolt in locked position, correct combo set at "change" index. But, without a stand and the dial attached I'm not sure how to
read the old combination or set the new combo. Have a display stand or order and am working on manufacturing my own.
S&G 8088 Padlock
Appears to be new in the box, but . . .
does not open with 10 - 20 - 30 - 0
There may be a problem with some 8088 padlocks
See 8088 patents below
Center of dial marked: 45
Fig 2 This is a different lock (not the one at left), the one at left did not open. Note the change key is just a smaller version of the S&G Group 2 change key. Marked:
Other Pat. Pend.
S&G 8077 Padlock
This is a more secure version of the 8088 padlock. It has an
armor plate removable back to protect the key change hole.
See: 8077 patents below
Center of dial marked: 35
The change key hole is very much more guarded than in the 8077 compared to the 8088 above. Marked:
U Sargent & Greenleaf Inc. S
Rochester, N.Y. U.S.A.
Fed. Spec. FF-P-110
The factory combination is "25", but the instructions that came with the lock are wrong. The instructions say to turn CCW four times and stop on 25. Then turn CW to 0 and open.
But my lock works with the opposite rotation.
Turn CW and stop at 24 after it appears at least 4 times.
Then turn CCW to 0 and open.
YouTube Video demonstration of this:
Open Sargent and Greenleaf 8077A Padlok with Factory "25" Combination
Mosler 302-402 Group 1R
Note the dial has a change index, the change method
is to take apart the wheel pack, so the dial is mismatch to the lock.
Fig 2 lists some Mosler patents
missing 6-32 cover screws.
Fig 3 Missing spindle key to drive cam.
Plastic wheels for the "R" part of 1R.
Also the the outside of each wheel has a lot of false gates.
Yale on Stand
1921 patent date
1.56" back of ring to front of lock
Fig 2 "PACKAGE 7" printed on tape
Fig 3 First generation where the fence rids directly on the disks.
Combination change requires mechanical access to the wheel
pack on the cover.
Fig 4 The "tube" between the lock case and dial ring looks
much stronger than what is typically used. Probably a part
of the patented spindle to prevent "Punching".
1398642 - punch proof - special spindle & tube
Fig 1 S&G 8400 Manipulation Proof
No model number info.
Note "butterfly" knob in center of dial.
The two stand feet are removable, i.e. paper doll construction.
Fig 2 Back Side
Sargent & Greenleaf Inc.
Rochester, N.Y,. U.S.A.
Pat. No. 2,576,674
Other pat's pend.
On many of the below patent references I've included the class number. I learned about the importance of this when looking for patents in the Sunnyvale Patent Library where they file physical patents in folders that are grouped by class/sub-class number. That's to say they do NOT file patents by patent number since that has no meaning. So once you find a patent you are interested in they it's likely that you will be interested in patents with the same class/sub-class number.
In the list of top class numbers locks are 70.
This page at the USPTO describes all the sub-classes under 70 Locks.
La Guard Patents
4142388 Tumbler wheels for combination locks, Peter J. Phillips, Mar 6, 1979, 70/316, 70/319 - Combo change key
4197726 Combination locks, Tim M. Uyeda, La Gard, Inc., Apr 15, 1980, 70/332, 70/333.00A, 359/440 - "Dust Guard" - fingerprints not on dial
Sargent & Greenleaf
Patent dates engraved in center of 1870s dial:
Sep 18 1860
30092 Permutation Lock, George Rosner, Sep 18, 1860, - provides for "key change" rather than removing the wheels. (maybe one wheel changed at a time?)
Jan 9 1866
51973 Permutation Lock, James Sargent & H.W. Covert, - includes a change key where the cross section shape of the key matches the keyhole.
57574 Permutation Lock, James Sargent, Aug 28, 1866,
4462230 Changeable safe deposit lock with slidable clamped fences, Walter R. Evans, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Jul 31, 1984 - 5502990 says: "There is a danger with this solution that the code will not be fixed satisfactorily if the screw is not tightened correctly. Another drawback with this lock is that it is not compact enough and consequently it is possible to reach the lock mechanism and "feel" the mechanism with a steel wire or the like inserted into the lock housing."
Aug 28 1866
57508 Lock, E.R. Hopkins, - push/pull dial to throw bolt
July 14 1857
17804 Permutation Lock, L.F. Munger - pins on tumblers drive adjacent tumbler
78310 Permutation Lock, D.K. Miller, May 26, 1868,
July 16 1871
116737 Improved Permutation Lock, D.K. Miller, July 4, 1871 - (28 May 1868?) - dial pushed in after combination dialed to activate bolt.
47575 Lock, James Sargent & H.W. Covert, May 2, 1865 - keeps the dog from contacting the tumbler rims.
D251233 Combined dial ring and removable center bearing assembly for combination locks and the like, James C. Miller, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Mar 6, 1979, - design for the S&G bushing.
1484692 Lock, Weber Eugene R, Sargent & Greenleaf, Feb 26, 1924, 70/303.00R, 70/317, 70/323, 70/322 - Looks like a Group 2 body, position (gravity) independent but only one notch on cam. To prevent opening by driving spindle i.e. "punching" the mounting holes have thin walls so the whole lock body will move rather than the back cover. Also how a changeable combination can be done.
2575674 Permutation lock, Harry C Miller, Filed: Mar 26, 1949, Pub: Nov 20, 1951, 70/284, 70/323, 70/303.00A, 70/333.00R
"The primary object of the present invention is to provider a combination lock in which a manipulation of the dial will not give any indication of the position of the gates in any of the tumblers." Magic Module size.
see above photo
2807954 Combination lock, Miller Harry C, Filed: Jul 6, 1954, Pub: Oct 1, 1957, 70/333.00R, 70/303.00R, 70/323
Improvement on 2575954 in that the prior lock was susceptible to wear out of the mechanism allowing manipulation.
2925726 Combination lock, Miller Harry C, Filed: Oct 3, 1951, Pub: Feb 23, 1960, - nose & notch to keep fence from riding on wheels. - fix after Pearl Harbor.
4163376 Tumbler wheel combination locks with torque adjuster means, Benson L. Miller, Steven Helesfai, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Aug 7, 1979, 70/303.00A, 70/323
"An object of the present invention, therefore, is the provision of a novel combination lock construction of the tumbler wheel type, wherein means are provided for setting and varying the wheel tension force or torque characteristics of the lock." - R6700 and many other models.
3968667 Combination lock construction - 8500 series
4359883 Time delay combination lock, Charles G. Bechtiger, James C. Miller, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Nov 23, 1982
4512167 Variable position quick mount combination lock, Joseph M. Remenicky, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Apr 23, 1985 - provides for RH, LH, VU and VD lock body positions.
5473919 Manipulation resistant combination lock with magnets, Roy T. Abner, Brian D. Costley, Dec 12, 1995 - uses magnets to prevent finding the notch contact points, i.e. anti manipulation - ? model number?
S&G 8088 padlock
2573189 Guard for resetting mechanisms of combination locks, Otto H Eiffert, Jr Howard S Thomas, Oct 30, 1951 -
2625032 Combination lock with tumbler upsetting mechanism, Otto H Eiffert, Jr Howard S Thomas, Jan 13, 1953, 70/23, 70/303.00R, 70/314, 70/133 - 8088
2673457 Exposed shackle combination padlock, Miller Harry C, Mar 30, 1954, 70/25, 70/333.00R, 70/303.00R, 70/303.00A - 8088
2775112 Combination resetting guard for exposed shackle padlock, Taylor James L, Dec 25, 1956 - to prevent access to the key change hole - no a product
2780087 Combination resetting guard for combination padlocks, Miller Harry C, (not S&G), Feb 5, 1957 - to prevent access to the key change hole - no a product
2814940 Exposed shackle combination padlock, Miller Harry C, Dec 3, 1957 - to prevent drilling dial and replacing it, an upgrade to the 8088, not a product
2852928 Combination lock actuating mechanism, Miller Harry C, (not S&G), Sep 23, 1958 -
S&G 8077 Padlock
3533253 Changeable combination padlock, Helesfai Steven, Miller Harry C, Paul George D, Oct 13, 1970, - 8077
"...improve the security of the padlock against unauthorized manipulation and against unauthorized access to the combination changing mechanism of the padlock. " . . . "For example, when the padlock is of the type having a combination change key opening in the rear cover of the lock casing through which the change key is inserted to change the combination, this opening needs to be especially protected to prevent possible observation of the tumbler wheels, or at least the rearmost tumbler wheel, by unauthorized persons and to protect against insertion of small pieces of material, such as shim stock, through the change key opening to detect the lock combination or manipulate the internal lock mechanism." . . . "When the dials of such exposed shackle combination padlocks are located externally of the padlock casing, persons seeking unauthorized operation of the lock can readily drill through the exposed dial and casing to inspect the interior of the padlock and determine the combination, and then replace the damaged dial With a new matching dial to disguise the fact that the lock has been tampered with."
YouTube: sg 8088.mp4 - shim change key hole ;
106472 Permutation lock, Charles Diebold & Jacob Obernesser, Aug 16, 1870,
1544893 (Pick Proof key type) Lock, Diebold Charles J, Jul 7, 1925, 70/134, 70/355,
2029272 Delayed control time lock, Miller William C, Jan 28, 1936, 70/268 - has the look and feel of a Group 2 lock body
2656705 Combination lock, Behrens Herbert C, Diebold Inc, FIled: Dec 2, 1949, Pub: Oct 27, 1953, 70/133, 70/303.00A -
Has the look and feel of a UL 768 Group 2 lock. Mentions 30 minutes to manipulate a lock open.
This can be prevented by adding a tounge at the back of the bolt that engages notches in the tumblers.
1956304 Combination Lock, Abbott Albert L, Miller Charles H, Diebold Safe & Lock Co, Apr 24, 1934, 70/317 - uses change key - Group 2 form factor
Mosler Safe Co. (Mosler Lock Co.)
Sticker: Key Change protected by one or more of these patents:
3038325 Tamper proof combination lock, Maynard Robert W, Mosler Safe Co, Jun 12, 1962 - prevent lockout after mistaken combo change
3073145 Manipulation resistant combination lock, Potzick Anthony J, Mosler Lock Company, Jan 15, 1963, fast moving fence to defeat sound & feel attacks
3106083 Tamper proof combination lock, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Oct 8, 1963 - mitigate sound & feel attacks
3111022 Tamper proof lock, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 19, 1963 - cover removed or heat causes relock
3702551 Time delay combination locks, Blizard Horace A, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 14, 1972 - adds a time delay after combo correctly dialed Delayed Action Time Lock - winding axis coaxial with spindle axis saving gearing.
682221 Safe, Moses Mosler, Sep 10, 1901,
2775115 Manipulation-resistant combination lock, Dec 25, 1956
788325 Circular-door safe, Moses Mosler, Apr 25, 1905, - door taper fitPatent numbers on a Mosler 302 (see above) group 1R combo lock (appears to have plastic rims on wheels with cast numbers, no change key:
971344 Safe or Vault, Carl Bartels, Sep 27, 1910, drum shaped vault with circular door
2609679 Safe lock, Bauer George J, Bremer Frederick J, Mosler Safe Co, Sep 9, 1952, 70/1.5, 70/379.00R, 70/422, 70/355 -
3373583 Combination lock with normally masked driver gate - adds nose and notch to keep fence from contacting tunblers
3702551 Time delay combination locks
3772904 Lock with changeable guard and locking keys - A two key lever tumbler lock with at least two sets of tumblers
3386275 Key changeable tumbler construction for combination locks
3727439 Modular key lock having lever tumblers with bendable portions
4238942 Direct dial combination lock with driver-cammed reciprocating tumblers and scrambled combs
Sticker on Mosler TL-30 safe 39" x 32" x 39" with half dozen combination lock compartments:
2735541 Device for Storing Paper Money and Coins, Arthur R. Mosler, Feb 21, 1956
2770516 Depositing machines, Mestre Luis, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 13, 1956,
2775114 Combination lock, Lee Cora A, Filed: Jan 3, 1949, Pub: Dec 25, 1956, - manipulation proof
2775115 Manipulation-resistant combination lock, Bremer Frederick J, Mosler Safe Co, Dec 25, 1956
2775947 Repository or safe, Arthur R Mosler, Mosler Safe Co, Jan 1, 1957 - key lock compartments for each salesperson
2796308 Power driven multiple revolving card files, Knittel Emil E, Jun 18, 1957
2858691 Key changed tumbler clamp, Hoffman Ray L, Mosler Lock Company, Nov 4, 1958 - square drive change key
2881612 Combination lock construction, Bremer Frederick J, Norris Smith Charles, Apr 14, 1959
2888115 Combined clutch and brake, Knittel Emil E, May 26, 1959 - for motorized file cabinet
2985726 Selector switch for rotary files, Handel Siegfried K, Mosler Safe Co, May 23, 1961
3038325 Tamper proof combination lock, Maynard Robert W, Mosler Safe Co, Jun 12, 1962
3015342 Blast closure, Charles D Price, Jan 2, 1962 - closes air duct if outside explosion
3059984 Control circuit for motor driven file, Handel Siegfried K, Mosler Safe Co, Oct 23, 1962
3073145 Manipulation resistant combination lock, Potzick Anthony J, Mosler Lock Company, Jan 15, 1963
3076329 Time lock, Maynard Robert W, Mosler Safe Co, Feb 5, 1963 - time delay
3106083 Tamper proof combination lock, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Oct 8, 1963
3111022 Tamper proof lock, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 19, 1963
3119394 Power driven rotating card files, Knittel Emil E, Mosler Safe Co, Jan 28, 1964
3120117 Tamper proof combination lock, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Feb 4, 1964
3128728 Heat resistant money safe door, Russell F Houston, Apr 14, 1964 - to defeat torch cutting by using copper
3139047 Safe door construction, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Jun 30, 1964 - circular tapered door for money safe
3254219 Nuclear blast detector and alarm system, Finlay Joseph M, Price Charles D, Mosler Safe Co, May 31, 1966 - uses vacuum tube in sensor and indoor transistorized circuit to detect double peak
3296952 Blast closure, Harry J Lingal, Mosler Safe Co, Jan 10, 1967 - shock wave adtuated
3386275 Key changeable tumbler construction for combination locks, Potzick Anthony J, Mosler Safe Co, Jun 4, 1968
3371627 Modular interior storage safe, Leland W Belew, Mosler Safe Co, Mar 5, 1968 - for magnetic media
3373583 Combination lock with normally masked driver gate, Parrock Joseph J, Mosler Lock Company, Mar 19, 1968 - an additional number is dialed after the combination to unmask the gate.
3383887 Combination lock, Joseph V Baum, Jeremy M Harris, Henry E Hull, Mosler Safe Co, May 21, 1968 - push button sequence
3418951 Security file, Leland W Belew, Dec 31, 1968 -
3420155 Delay latch for blast valves, Charles E Slater, Mosler Safe Co, Jan 7, 1969
3421461 Safe, Albert R St Clair, Robert W Maynard, Jan 14, 1969 - auto closing doors in event of fire
3426707 Security file, Heyl Leo W, Maynard Robert W, Mosler Safe Co, Feb 11, 1969 - Class 5
3481166 Lock timer, Lingal Harry J, Mosler Safe Co, Dec 2, 1969 - add-on pneumatic time delay
3518856 Combination lock with cam follower positioned,cumulatively arrested tumbler elements, Potzick Anthony J, Mosler Safe Co, Jul 7, 1970 - looks complicated (expensive)
3650226 Document destruct file, John P Conroy, Kendall H Grimes, Robert W Maynard, Mosler Safe Co, Mar 21, 1972 - so that documents can be destroyed to prevent enemy capture
3702551 Time delay combination locks, Blizard Horace A, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 14, 1972 - piggy back single axis add-on to a group 2 lock
Winding occurs after the first combo number is set and the dial is turned CW for the second number but only for part of a turn then the dial is free turning as before.
2029272 Delayed control time lock, Miller William C, Diebold Safe & Lock Co, Jan 28, 1936 - single escapement
2036767 Delayed control time lock, Hawkins Paul M, Miller William C, Diebold Safe & Lock Co, Apr 7, 1936 - dual escapement
2097035 Dual control time-lock, Earl Boughton, Miller William C, Dicbold Safe & Lock Co (sic), Oct 26, 1937 - dual escapement
Known for pin tumbler locks, post office box parts, safes and vaults and their combination or time locks. But also patented related items such as: 402878, 496799, 499622, 512071 compound chain hoist (handy for safes, vaults and their doors, key making related metal working machines, Skid Wiki: (pallet) 1944845
672911 Combination-lock, Schuyler Merritt, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Apr 30, 1901 - tumblers on cover of cylindrical housing
685289 Lock, Frank W Mix, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Oct 29, 1901 - key type padlock
840269 Safe-bolt mechanism and lock, Warren H Taylor, Jan 1, 1907 - not Group 2
876028 Spindle for dial-locks, Warren H Taylor, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Jan 7, 1908 - weak points added to prevent "punching" - does not look like a workable idea
985609 Method of making tumblers for combination-locks, Rollin C Lewis, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Feb 28, 1911 - drive pins not separate parts. looks like movable flys
111587 Permutation Lock, H.R. Towne, Feb 7, 1871,
1166232 Releasing-slide for combination-locks, Rollin C Lewis, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Dec 28, 1915 - not group 2 -
1283255 Time-lock movement, Charles A Miller, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Oct 29, 1918 - simplify adjustment - single escapement
1296538 Lock, R.C. Lewis, Mar 4, 1919, - about lock body cover - looks like Group 2 - wheel pack on cover - re-locking?
1395845 Dial-lock, Lewis Rollin C, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Nov 1, 1921 - re-lock against "Punching"
1398642 Dial-lock, Lewis Rollin C, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Nov 29, 1921 -
Note anti "Punching" cone on spindle near dial ring.
Has the look and feel of the Group 2 lock case, but non standard tube.
Note nearby patents by R.C. Lewis.
See Yale lock on stand above
1403793 Dial Lock, Rollin C Lewis, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Jan 17, 1922 - re-locker
1583402 Combination dial lock, Lewis Rollin C, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, May 4, 1926 - numbers on tumblers 2-pronged change key, but not Group-2 outline (cylindrical case)
194274 Bolting-mechanism for safe and vault doors, H.R. Towne, The Yale lock Manufacturing Company, Aug 14, 1877 - provides for two independent locks so if one fails the other can open the door.
2043205 Lock, Frank E Thompson, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Jun 2, 1936 - mushroom pins for pin-tumbler lock
206147 Safe and Vault Fastening, E. Stockwell, July 16, 1878, - round door cogged and dogged with only time lock.
232086 Dials for Locks, E. Stockwell, W.H. Taylor, Sep 7, 1880, - instead of casting the whole dial, sheet metal is combined with a cast knob.
240783 Dial for Permutation Lock, E. Stockwell, Apr 26, 1881, 70/445; 16/DIG.30; 403/325; 403/9; 70/210; 74/553
2672042 Combination lock, George Willis D, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Mar 16, 1954, - manipulation proof
Calls:408550 Rod Handle for Locks, W.H. Taylor, Aug 6 1889
1092843 Combination Lock, R.C. Lewis, Apr 14, 1914, - has key on back side to lock lid to body (seems like a poor idea)
1484692 see S&G 1484692 above
408552 Rod Handle for Locks, Henry R. Towne, Aug 6, 1889
672911 Combination-lock, Schuyler Merritt, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Apr 30, 1901 - re-locker (he called it supplementary dogging device.
713714 Safety concussion device for locking appliances, Warren H Taylor, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Nov 18, 1902 - explosives or sledge hammer hits cause re-locking
1077077 Electric protective device for safe and vault doors, Hermann Huhn, Henry R Huhn, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Oct 28, 1913 - prevent alarm from sounding just after time lock has been set but before door closed.
1904383 Safe deposit lock, Mosely William P, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Apr 18, 1933 -
2431894 Lock, Spain, Roy C, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Dec 2, 1947, - high security key lock
1693731 Lock, Frederick Sioberg Charles, York Safe And Lock Co, Dec 4, 1928 - safe deposit lock
5502990 says: "This lock mechanism is also comparatively complicated and bulky, i.e. it suffers generally the same drawbacks as those encountered with the aforedescribed lock construction of Evans."
Lever locks have been around since the late 1700s and work with a bitted key (Wiki). UK door locks use these because of insurance rules. These are also used in safe deposit boxes (Wiki) and money safes where the front door is a combination lock and the lever lock is in the back.
It may be that sheet metal stamping was very inexpensive way to make high volume parts when compared with a lathe turning parts. This would make lever locks much less costly than pin tumbler locks until chucker lathes or later Swiss Screw Machines (Wiki) were commonplace. Note early flashlights used a lot of sheet metal parts that were not only stamped but also bent into complex shapes automatically.
YouTube: Open lock Mauer 74046 - to see how a level lock works, Вскрытие Сейфа - picking tool for lever locks, G & C 7 Lever Safe Lock - assembly & picking,
2 in 1 Pick Clicker - picking tool for lever locks (with videos)
666697 Multiple-key lock, James Roche, Eagle Lock Company, Jan 29, 1901, 70/384 - sate-deposit
690537 Changeable-combination key-lock, Warren H Taylor, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Jan 7, 1902 -
993908 Safe-deposit lock, Warren H Taylor, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, May 30, 1911 - single keyhole, first custodian partially unlocks then the box renter uses his key
246605 Lock, Frederick Egge, Smith & Egge Mfg Co., Sep 6, 1881, 70/355; 70/405; 70/453
1049648 Lock for safety-deposit boxes, Edgar M Benham, Bankers Dust Proof Time Lock Company, Jan 7, 1913, 70/385 -
1271632 Lock, Henry G Voight, Sargent & Co, Jul 9, 1918, 70/134, 70/337, 70/340
1417148 Lock, Diesel William F, Price William R, Sargent & Greenleaf, May 23, 1922, - single key
1431381 Adjustable lock, William F Diesel, Eugene R Weber, Sargent & Greenleaf, Oct 10, 1922, 70/385 -
1447865 Lock, Frank Kihm, Albert M Hoffheimer, Filed: Sep 13, 1920, Pub: Mar 6, 1923, 70/385 - safe deposit - rekey by changing tumblers
Changeable-combination key lock, Benham Edgar M, Mosler Lock Company, Nov 10, 1925, 70/385, 70/339- Tenant, Guard & Change keys
1522573 Changeable combination key lock, Benham Edgar M, Mosler Lock Company, Jan 13, 1925, 70/385, 70/339 - Safe Deposit Lock
1534495 Interchangeable combination key lock, Benham Edgar M, Mosler Lock Company, Filed: Apr 26, 1922, Pub: Apr 21, 1925, 70/385, 70/339 -
1374310 Changeable combination key lock, Willey Marvel Edward, (no company), Apr 12, 1921, 70/385 - see 1543447 (he sold to or worked for Mosler)
1543447 Changeable combination key lock, Willey Marvel Edward, Mosler Lock Company, Filed: Jan 5, 1922, Pub: Jun 23, 1925, 70/385, 70/339 - safe deposit - special key for changing renter key
Calls: 1166380 Key-lock, Dec 28, 1915
1166381 Key-lock, Dec 28, 1915
1145870 Changeable-combination key-lock, Jul 6, 1915
1901229 Multiple key lock, Diesel William F, Sargent & Greenleaf, filed: May 18, 1929, Pub: Mar 14, 1933, 70/385, 70/339, - Safe Deposit Lock - similar to the 4400 series, but not the same
3837196 Key changing lock for safe deposit boxes, Gartner K, Higgins E, Van Ryne R, Sargent & Greenleaf, Sep 24, 1974 -
3983728 Double changeable key lock for safe deposit boxes and the like, Peter J. Phillips, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Oct 5, 1976 -
1573741 Lock, Earl Parent William, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Filed: May 25, 1922, Pub: Feb 16, 1926, 70/385 -
1826595 Interchangeable key lock, Benham Edgar M, Mosler Lock Company, Oct 6, 1931 -
3727439 Modular key lock having lever tumblers with bendable portions (see above), Parrock J, Mosler Safe Co, Apr 17, 1973 - M5700
3772904 Lock with changeable guard and locking keys, Parrock J, Mosler Safe Co, Nov 20, 1973, 70/339, 70/355, 70/383 -
3837196 Key changing lock for safe deposit boxes, Gartner K, Higgins E, Van Ryne R, Sep 24, 1974, 70/339, 70/383, 70/355
3884058 Key-actuated locks, Reynolds Ronald, Terry Peter Alfred, May 20, 1975, - difficult to drill or pick
3983728 Double changeable key lock for safe deposit boxes and the like, Peter J. Phillips,
3991596 Tumbler wheel, changeable combination key lock construction, Klaus W. Gartner, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Nov 16, 1976 -
had problem with jamming, so 4375159 solves that. ** don't understand it**
4375159 Changeable combination tumbler wheel type key lock, Charles G. Bechtiger, Jacques Peyronnet, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Mar 1, 1983,
Looks on the outside like the 6880 lever lock and uses a very similar key, ** don't understand it**
4290287 Double changeable key lock for safe deposit boxes and the like, James P. Peppard, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Sep 22, 1981
4516417 Changeable keylock having tumblers with shiftable pivot seats, Joseph J. Parrock, American Standard Inc., May 14, 1985 - Safe Deposit Box
5502990 says: 4836000 Lever tumbler lock, Jorma Hirvi, Ab Fas Lasfabrik, Jun 6, 1989 - references 246605 above
5072604 Closure system consisting of a lock and a plurality of keys, Armin Eisermann, Schulte-Schlagbaum Aktiengesellschaft, Dec 17, 1991 - key looks like an "X" end on.
5502990 Recodable lever tumbler lock for use in high security safes, Jorma Hirvi, Sargent & Greenleaf, Apr 2, 1996, 8600 Series of lever locks
6519989 Lever lock unit, Jorma Hirvi, Ab Fas Lasfabrik, Feb 18, 2003, 70/492, 70/495, 70/409, 70/419 - European door type
6868706 3-action lock barrel, Bor-Ching Lin, Mar 22, 2005, 70/492, 70/352, 70/392, 70/377 - disk tumbler - not lever
key operated locks and Safe Deposit Locks
I expect this lock is as secure if not more secure than a Group 2 combination lock. But you have the problem of what to do with the huge key when it's not being used.
It can hardly be put on your key chain.
S&G's Magic Module footprint like their group 1 and group 2 locks.
This is an improvement on the 6804 and 4500 Safe Deposit Box locks which used an Alan screw as part of the re-keying operation and if not properly tightened might result in a lock-out.
S&G 6880 Safe Key Lock
in same package as the above Group 1 & 2 locks.
Bolt is tapped with screws installed to connect to door bolt work.
This is a common lever lock where there are two keys required to open. The tenant or renter key and the guard key (held by the bank).
These come in Right Hand and Left Hand versions depending on which way the safe deposit box door is hinged.
The tenant key is wider (8 mm) than the guard (7.1mm) key so it's clear here each key goes.
There are 6 levers on the tenant lock but only 5 levers on the guard lock. each level is stamped with a bit number.
Key is 0.07" thick. The tenant key mechanism has a cam at the bottom of the lever pack that's uses to retract the bolt. The guard key, when turned, allows the tenant key to open the lock.
The 4400 series are come in right and left handed versions, but the 4500 series can be installed either way so is not handed. (S&G web page)
The 4500 series can be re-keyed without disassemble, but the 4400 series requires a lever pack change for keying. (S&G web page)
The lock barrels are slightly over 1/2" proud of the lock body so designed for a door thickness of 1/2".
The diameter of the barrel is 0.672" (17.07mm) so the hole in the door might be 11/16" (17.5mm)?
It may be the case that the guard and tenant tumblers (wafers) are the same. The Mosler M5700 uses different tumblers for the tenant and guard functions.
matches Diebold 175
matches Mosler 5700
for B & C rate safe doors
pick & pull resistant
long throw bolt
Key Marked Sargent & Greenleaf, D 18207 (maybe bitting code (Wiki)?) 4319 (probably box number).
Fig 1 Front view, note gates are all aligned in hole to the right,
but not at the left.
Fig 2 Back
Fig 3 Inside with tenant key,
Fig 4 Tenant key aligned levers, note false notches
Fig 5 Lock open, Note false notches on tenant side bar,
but not on guard side bar. A 2 stump design.
Tenant levers top to bottom: 2 0 1 4 4 7
Guard levers top to bottom: 2 2 4 6 4
I think that both the renter and guard locks support up to 7 levers.
Lever Safe Deposit Locks (S&G 4400 and Mosler M5700)
These PO Box locks have a similar look and feel and may or may not all be made by S&G.
Fig 1 S&G Lever Lock + Cutler Mail Chute Co., Rochester, NY
Fig 2 S&G Lever Lock + Cutler Mail Chute Co., Rochester, NY
Fig 3 S&G 4101 pin tumbler lock
Fig 4 S&G 4101 pin tumbler lock
Fig 5 2-wheel Combination PO Box lock
If you know maker let me know.
Fig 6 2-wheel Combination PO Box lock
Does not open with printed combo.
Fig 7 2-wheel Combination PO Box lock
Fig 8 S&G 4110 Series Cabinet Lock
Fig 9 S&G 4110 with mechanism replaced with regular wafers. The key change mechanism can cause a lock-out if the screw is not tightened enough.
The movement feels like metal to metal friction whereas the S&G 4400 has a smooth feel.
Another difference is that on the S&G lock the tenant key can be inserted either before or after the guard key, but in the M5700 the tenant key will not seat until the guard key is turned.
Fig 1 This is called a single stump design.
Fig 2 Note "3" to the top tenant tumbler (not bendable).
3727439 Modular key lock having lever tumblers with bendable portions (see above), Parrock J, Mosler Safe Co, Apr 17, 1973 - has the look and fell of the M5700, but uses bendable tumblers so maybe not for the M5700.
The door is 1/2" thick, but not solid metal, but rather is made of two stainless steel sheet metal parts that are about 0.055" thick (17 guage?). They form a box.
4462230 Changeable safe deposit lock with slidable clamped fences, Walter R. Evans, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Jul 31, 1984 - Fatal Flaw
This patent has a fatal flaw in that if the change screw is not tightened correctly a lock out WILL occur. This is why the S&G 4500 shown below and the S&G 4100 locks both have been modified by removing the change mechanism and replacing it with conventional wafers.5502990 says: "There is a danger with this (S&G 4500) solution that the code will not be fixed satisfactorily if the screw is not tightened correctly. Another drawback with this lock is that it is not compact enough and consequently it is possible to reach the lock mechanism and "feel" the mechanism with a steel wire or the like inserted into the lock housing." - This may explain why the S&G 4500 has had the mechanism replaced with a conventional lever lock, i.e. the changeable feature has been defeated.
The 4527 is a single key version of the 4500.
Fig 4 Although the back of the lock is marked S&G 4500
it's clear that inside it's just a common 4400 series lock.
What's going on? let me know
The bolt may be from some other lock?
Fig 5 After the 2 screws holding the hinge are removed
the three sheet metal parts can be separated.
Fig 6 The key change screws are missing.
This assembly consists of the door jam, door and lever lock. It's inside a Herman Safe Co. safe.
If you click on the image and click again you can see the key marked Sargent and Greenleaf
and 120 on the back of the lever lock. Note key construction is the same as the safe deposit keys above.
The lock has the look and feel of the S&G 4100 cabinet lock (S&G web page), but they may no longer off the door assembly.
These are different from safe/vault locks in that there is provision to allow someone inside to get out. That's to say the lock can not be used to hold prisoners. A common application is a SCIF room (Wiki).
paragraph 3.3.3 ...GSA-approved combination lock..."
5.0 Glossary "Dead Bolt:� A lock bolt with no spring action.� Activated by a key or turn knob and cannot be moved by end pressure."
6.1 "When a rigid side shelter or portable van is used for SCI operations, it shall be equipped with either a combination lock that meets all requirements of Federal Specification FF-L-2740 or other CSA-approved lock.� The combination to the lock or keys shall be controlled by the SSO at the security level for which the T-SCIF is accredited.� The shelter or van shall be secured at all times when not activated as a SCIF."
The 8410 and 8415 have brass wheels (Group 1) and the 8430 and 8435 have plastic wheels (Group 1R).
Part Number Material Description 8415-107 8400 Group 1 Deadbolt, aluminum/brass wheels (strike not included) 8435-106 8400 Group 1R Deadbolt, acetal resin & brass wheels (strikes not included) 8555-105 8500 Group 1 Deadbolt, aluminum/brass wheels (strikes not included) 8565-105 8500 Group 1R Deadbolt, acetal resin & brass wheels (strikes not included) 8497-001
No. 1 Insiwng Door Strike
No. 2 Outswing Door Strike
8497-003 No. 3 Inswing Door Strike
8497-004 No. 9 Double Door, Outswing Strike
STRIKE PLATE STRIKE PLATE PICTURE STRIKE PLATE DIAGRAM 8497-001
Strike Plate #1
For in-swing door, inside frame mount
Strike Plate #2
For out-swing door
Strike Plate #3
For in-swing door, flush mount
or in-swing double doors
Strike Plate #9
For out-swing double doors
S&G Extension 50 (S&G web page)
S&G 8470 Family Dead Bolt Lock
New In Box (NIB) marked:
With Combination Lock
[x] 8415 [ ] 1
[ ] Dust Cover
[ ] 8435 [ ] 2
[x] Hard Plate
[ ] 8555 [ ] 3
[ ] 8556 [ ] 9
Model 8470 MP Adjusta-loc
(applies to the combined deadbolt and lock)
Operating & Changing Instructions for:
T8410 & T8415 Manipulation-proof Combination Locks
T8430 & T 8435 X-Ray & Manipulation-proof Combination Locks
(applies only to the Group 2 lock)
ote that the deadbolt part is a base plate with the bolt assemble and a standard Group 2 lock body is mounted on the base plate.
There are two door bolts, the main bolt (that has a couple of tapped holes on the end) and a smaller locking bolt. The locking bolt needs to be pressed in to enable the main bolt to extend.
The door bolt can be opened any time from the inside by using the "TRUN"knob. When working with the lock without a proper strike it is necessary to press in the small bolt in order it release the door bolt.
When the lock has been opened using the combination (Fig 6) then the "LOCK" slider can be moved to the center holding the lock in the open position.
Fig 1 New In Box
Fig 2 Contents of this box Lock Side showing opening knob
and hard plate & Accessory kit.
Fig 3 Packing inside box with custom cardboard stuffer.
Fig 4 Dial Side
Fig 5 Rear cover removed
The "Lock" slide on the cover interfers with the large screw
on the lock bolt.
Fig 6 After opening using combination
These are intended for displaying a UL 768 Group 2 combination lock or for use for manipulation practice.
See Yale on Stand above.
See S&G 8400 above
Made of plastic and comes in different colors.
The four large insert threaded holes are for mounting the lock body.
The two small insert threaded holes are for mounting the dial ring.
The two small plastic threaded holes are for mounting a dial ring.
From the front face to the back of the lock mounting bosses is 0.49". Note this is essentially the same as the plywood used for the Field Expedient Lock Stand (below).
MBA MB15-B1 Front
I want to figure out the combination on the Diebold 177-23 and so need a way to hold the dial ring in a fixed position relative to the body so used the first loose piece of wood I could find. Nominal 1/2" plywood, but measures 0.485" (12.3mm). Close enough to the door thickness for the Diebold 177-23. As received was setup for RH orientation so that's the way I mounted it.
Drilled holes for:
Spindle: used a 9/16" wood drill and needed to use it a second time since I got the location of the lock body off a little.
Short body 1/4-20 mounting screws: Used a 0.218" ( 7/32", 5.55mm) drill bit so that the short 1/4-40 mounting screws went in as self tapping. (Note: when reinstalling these first turn CCW until you feel the screw drop, then go CW. That way you will not strip the wood threads)
Dial Ring: Used 10-5/8 wood screws, no drilled hole, just tapped and screwed in.
This lock seems to have no built-in re-locker like the La Guard and LeFebure locks and appears to have 6 tumblers, so a good candidate for having some fun. Turns out 0nly a three number lock (Group 2).
Using a pencil mark as rear index the combination is 7-57-27. Note that this lock uses flys so the first number is the same if you dial CW first or CCS first. The pencil mark was placed so that it would be easy to see the gate notch approaching from either direction.
The pencil mark has the gate at 82 and when the fence drops it's at 44 the difference is 38, so that's the number to subtract.
7 - 38 = -31 (+100=) 69
57 - 38 = 19
28 - 38 = -10 (+100=) 90
After trying a small number of numbers -1 or +2 and -2 and +2 from that found Left 4turns to 70 - 17 - 90 that opens the lock when starting to the left. (69 - 17 - 90 does not work)
But when starting to the right it's 68 -17 - 90 (69 - 17 - 90 does not work).
So maybe there's a problem with the fly on wheel #1?
I wonder if the positioning of the index ring would cause the asymmetry? maybe, but it's not important.
The group 2 locks open by setting the wheels in the proper position by either knowing the combination or by manipulation then turning the dial clockwise to retract the bolt. This mean that to enter the combination you always must turn the dial counter clockwise at least 4 turns to pickup all the wheels. That would not be the case if an external handle was used to retract the bolt. So it seems that having "flys" on a group 2 lock only serves to have something that can go wrong without any benefit. Let me know if you see a benefit in "flys" on these locks.
PS I've changed the combination to left 4 turns then stopping on 20, right stopping on the third appearance of 30, left stopping on the second appearance of 40, right to retract the bolt.
better to mount body a little lower and to the left.
The index mark may be off one or two, hard to say.
In process Dec 2016. Considering different designs:
1. an "L" shape stand where the face is 90 degrees from the base so that an auto-dialer can be used or so that two stands can be used for long dial spindles.
2. a flat plate, very much like the S&G MP stand where the support legs unplug, i.e. paper doll cutout, so that it can ship in a smaller volume.
3. a combination of the above two where the base of the "L" is short with the "feet" from (2).
Aluminum "L" stand
The Safe Manipulator TSM has nice on screen display of the position of each wheel. smart dialer - YouTube: TSM - The Ultimate in Combination Recovery & Cracking Safes
QX3 Auto Dialer - tries all numbers (at Q Tactical)
ITL-2000II - tries all numbers - 30 hours
DEFCON 13: A Safecracking Double Feature: Dial 'B' For BackDialing and Spike the Wonder Safe
John Kent - Locks Menu - Thoughts on the S & G combination dial -
YouTube: lagard 3 wheel combination manipulation - shaft encoder & laptop, but manual dial rotation - tell me more about what's on the computer screen.
YouTube: Warning Day Lock is Dangerous...La Guard 3330 Safe Lock - Feynman method or NASCAR method of reading combination from open or day-lock.
Note the MBA EX Amp is on eBay as "The Ear Listens" or "ear listen through wall device Spy bug Eavesdropping Wall microphone voice bug" for under $10. The sound probe is spring loaded so some way is needed to hold it down, I used blue tape.
Book: The Art of Manipulation, by Clyde Lentz, Bill Kenton, 1955, 35 pages.
Locraker - Automatic combination lock cracker -
4056956 Tool for determining safe lock component positions, Charles David Gilliam, New York School Of Locksmithing, Inc., Nov 8, 1977 - maybe only for locks prior to W.W.II?
4803860 Manipulation assistance device and method, Randall L. Moore, Feb 14, 1989 - based on contact points on post W.W.II locks. " Sight is replaced by an optical scanner and target. Hearing and touch are replaced by a microphone and amplifier with a peak detector." Manual rotation of dial. A lever arm with a bar code scale used to measure very small angles.
Calls:2974517 Combination lock opener, Isaac Jacobs, Mar 14, 1961, 70/442 - vibration to get random motion of the tumblers
2974517 - Jacobs teaches a motorized clamp which vibrates the members of a combination until they adjust themselves into an unlocked position.
4056956 - Gilliam teaches a torque wrench type device which imparts a torque to the handle of a safe in order to determine the location of a gate relative to the tailpiece of the lock as its dial is rotated.
3694637 Method and apparatus for detecting tool wear - audio spectral analysis of the sounds made by the tool
4433563 - Wilson teaches a computer controlled motor which is driven through a series of combinations until the correct combination is stumbled upon.Citations
US2974517 * Apr 21, 1958 Mar 14, 1961 Isaac Jacobs Combination lock opener US4056956 * Jul 13, 1976 Nov 8, 1977 New York School Of Locksmithing, Inc. Tool for determining safe lock component positions US4319223 * Jul 1, 1965 Mar 9, 1982 The Bendix Corporation Full code means for electromechanical decoder US4377847 * Feb 17, 1981 Mar 22, 1983 Gould Inc. Microprocessor controlled micro-stepping chart drive US4433563 * Apr 7, 1982 Feb 28, 1984 Wilson Glenn E Lock decoder US4769583 * May 1, 1987 Sep 6, 1988 General Motors Corporation Motion control system with minimum time path generation US4777603 * Mar 8, 1985 Oct 11, 1988 Cybermation, Inc. Controller for multiple-axis machine US4803860 * Jul 24, 1987 Feb 14, 1989 Moore Randall L Manipulation assistance device and method
US5184491 * Jul 19, 1990 Feb 9, 1993 Theodor Kromer Gmbh & Co. Kg Spezialfabrik Fur Sicherheitsschlosser Combination lock with motor-driven tumblers US5477608 * Nov 9, 1993 Dec 26, 1995 Bernhard Schafer Werkseug-Und Sondermaschinenbau Gmbh Apparatus for connecting a wire to a contact element US5678436 * Nov 28, 1995 Oct 21, 1997 Alexander; Curtis Earl Remote control door lock system US7267018 * Jul 6, 2005 Sep 11, 2007 Kabushiki Kaisha Honda Lock Steering lock system inspection device US7694542 * Jul 21, 2005 Apr 13, 2010 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool operated combination lock US7712342 * Oct 21, 2005 May 11, 2010 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool operated combination lock US20050261804 * May 21, 2004 Nov 24, 2005 John Doty Mechanical lock manipulation device and method US20060016230 * Jul 21, 2005 Jan 26, 2006 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool operated combination lock US20060021402 * Jul 6, 2005 Feb 2, 2006 Kabushiki Kaisha Honda Lock Steering lock system inspection device US20060096343 * Oct 21, 2005 May 11, 2006 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool operated combination lock US20080209959 * Mar 3, 2008 Sep 4, 2008 Natalee Russo-Amati Key Actuation Mechanism US20090280862 * May 29, 2009 Nov 12, 2009 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool Operated Combination Lock US20100194526 * Mar 22, 2010 Aug 5, 2010 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool Operated Combination Lock US20100194527 * Mar 22, 2010 Aug 5, 2010 Stanton Concepts Inc. Tool Operated Combination Lock US20140245798 * Mar 4, 2013 Sep 4, 2014 Christopher V. Beckman Add-Lock CN103912159A * Apr 25, 2014 Jul 9, 2014 广州市亚太天能信息技术有限公司 Back locking method of door lock EP2025840A1 * Jul 31, 2007 Feb 18, 2009 Franck Haddadi Device designed to allow opening without destroying the lock
20050261804 - a couple of methods for half a dozen lock models - Loc Tech Tools Inc, SoftDrill - Inject Transducer & Response Transducer
US4319223 * Jul 1, 1965 Mar 9, 1982 The Bendix Corporation Full code means for electromechanical decoder US4433563 * Apr 7, 1982 Feb 28, 1984 Wilson Glenn E Lock decoder US4494805 * Nov 29, 1982 Jan 22, 1985 Glen E. Beymer Equipment locker US4803860 * Jul 24, 1987 Feb 14, 1989 Moore Randall L Manipulation assistance device and method US4905490 * Aug 25, 1988 Mar 6, 1990 Wilson Glenn E Lock combination decoder US5184491 * Jul 19, 1990 Feb 9, 1993 Theodor Kromer Gmbh & Co. Kg Spezialfabrik Fur Sicherheitsschlosser Combination lock with motor-driven tumblers US5873276 * Aug 28, 1996 Feb 23, 1999 Mas-Hamilton Group Keypad entry electronic combination lock with self-generated combination US20040211233 * Apr 28, 2003 Oct 28, 2004 Lockmasters, Inc. Mechanical combination lock
US7267018 * Jul 6, 2005 Sep 11, 2007 Kabushiki Kaisha Honda Lock Steering lock system inspection device US7484777 * Jun 30, 2006 Feb 3, 2009 Sargent Manufacturing Company Electronic push retraction exit device US7883123 Jan 28, 2009 Feb 8, 2011 Sargent Manufacturing Company Electronic push retraction exit device US8495836 Aug 27, 2009 Jul 30, 2013 Sargent Manufacturing Company Door hardware drive mechanism with sensor US20060021402 * Jul 6, 2005 Feb 2, 2006 Kabushiki Kaisha Honda Lock Steering lock system inspection device US20080012350 * Jun 30, 2006 Jan 17, 2008 Condo Mark A Electronic push retraction exit device US20090127869 * Jan 28, 2009 May 21, 2009 Sargent Manufacturing Company Electronic push retraction exit device US20110047874 * Aug 27, 2009 Mar 3, 2011 Sargent Manufacturing Company Door hardware drive mechanism with sensor WO2008010876A3 * Jun 5, 2007 Mar 13, 2008 Sargent Mfg Co Electronic push retraction exit device WO2013124628A1 * Feb 15, 2013 Aug 29, 2013 Nedwell Jeremy Method, apparatus and transducer for use in determining the cut of a mechanical lock WO2013124629A1 * Feb 15, 2013 Aug 29, 2013 Nedwell Jeremy Method, apparatus and transducer for use in determining the cut of a mechanical lock
It applies to combination locks used on filing cabinets such as Fed Spec: AA-F-358
It references UL 768 combination lock standard, group 1R
If the combo is lost it's possible to with box open to enter a new combo, but not to recover the old combo.
Not possible to allow for dialing one number like on a mechanical dial where it's turned a little from the final number and left there making it very easy to re-enter.
Spindle length between 0.5 and 3.5" long
The Kaba Mas is a very interesting lock and may be the highest security lock mechanism. But the overall security of what it protects would also depend on it's installation and combination control procedures.
UL Listed, High Security Electronic Lock
Type 1F 4R95 s/n D-xxxxxx
Model X-07 - U.S. Pat 5,061,923 and other U.S./Foreign Patents
Lixington, KY U.S.A.
5061923 Computerized combination lock, James C. Miller, Michael P. Harvey, C & M Technology, Inc., Filed: Sep 29, 1988, Pub: Oct 29, 1991, 340/5.31, 341/35, 340/5.73, 340/5.55, 340/5.32, 70/278.4 - 3 Figures: Lock on top file drawer, top view of dial, block dia w/stepper motor/generator. does not have the high security flow diagrams of 6911897 - 93 patents reference this one.
6911897 Electronic combination lock with high security features, J. Clayton Miller, Michael P. Harvey, C&M Technology, Inc., Filed: Sep 29, 1988, Pub: Jun 28, 2005 (almost a 20 year delay) - uses a stepper motor as a generator so no batteries are needed. - 22 patents reference this one. This and the above probably are the XO-7. 20 Figures
Installation Instructions for the X-07/CEX-07 High Security Electronic Lock Type 1F, Doc. No. 001.123 Rev. D 11/98
Operating Instructions for the X-07CEX-07 High Security Electronic Lock (Type 1F), Doc No. 000.111 Rev. D 11/98
X-07 Troubleshooting Guide, Doc. No. 041.018 Rev. B 01/98
Fig 1 Box as received
Fig 2 Factory foam packing
Fig 3 Dial assembly and lock assembly
Fig 4 The polyimide flex circuit cable (Wiki) has a 4 terminal end
and also a 5 terminal end. They go in sockets with the matching
number of contacts in the rubber block (which just pulls out of the
metal clip and splits open).
Fig 5 Shown with the bolt pointing up since it apparently does
not have a return spring. A motor pushes the bolt out.
Fig 6 Change Key
This is just a "U" shaped gold plated 0.98mm dia. wire.
It turns out that to get high security using a padlock the hasp also needs to be high security. That's to say if you install a high security padlock on your existing hasp the security will be severely compromised.
There are a number of high security hasp patents to cover this. And in the case of the
This is an idea of how to classify locks by using their characteristics.Body Shape: Rectangular, Circle, Heart, &Etc.
Body Size: width in mm.
Shackle: diameter is mm
Key Operation: (not mentioned = key turns), Push Key (non turning, See Yale Push Key), Lever Push Key (non turning, see Lever Pancake Locks).
Shackle Motion: (not mentioned = Spring Up then manual rotate, Rotate (see: USPS Counter Padlock), Push Up then Rotate (see Yale Push Key)
Locking Mechanism: Key, Combination, Puzzle
Key Location: Front center, Front bottom, Bottom Center, Bottom Left, Bottom Right (shackle pivot on right), 5:00 O'clock, 6:00 O'clock, 3:00 O'clock.
This lock gets good reviews in that it's more secure than the classical Master locker combination lock and it's much easier to use, so good value.
This is a mechanical lock that works by pushing the knob Up, Right, Down or Left in a sequence.
6718803 Combination lock, Yehonatan Knoll, Knollan Ltd., Apr 13, 2004 -
So far it has not opened. Maybe there is a backup combination?
What are the numbers at the left counting down from 10 with 5 magnified? security level, but not of much meaning
Fig 2 Does not open.
I thought someone might have opened the lock and changed it's combination, but the seal on the back of the lock looks intact, so the problem is at the factory.
It appears that there's no way to try out a new combination after it's been set, like on a safe where you can test it with the door open. Here you are committed to the change and there's no way to confirm it was done correctly. This applies when the factory sets the combination used to ship the lock.
Idea: Early safes may have had a problem with vibration causing the disks to rotate so the notch was up, and if the bar was at the 12:00 o'clock position the safe could just be opened. Applying some tension to the wheel pack solved that.
In this case maybe the vibration associated with shipping causes scrambling of the set combination?
Fig 3 Received a pair of replacement mechanical locks.
Fig 5 After pressing the shackle down a couple of times (to zero the lock)
then Left, Down, Down, Left and pulling up the lock opened the first time.
above) padlock. It has the Speed Dial action.
1. If the CR2032 coin battery fails while the 1500eXD is locked then . . .
2. Open the battery drawer a little way and insert just the edge of a CR2013 battery (+ up) to jump start the lock.
1. If the it's been 4 or 5 years and you want to replace the CR2032 battery then....
2. Unlock the 1500eXD and open the shackle, then pull the battery drawer all the way out
Patents shown on back (Fig 2):
Fig 3 Note battery drawer at bottom.
Fig 4 Battery drawer open
to change batt. Note: slot
below battery for jump start.
Can not close battery drawer!
This is as far closed as it will go.
7708340 Padlock display package
7516843 Padlock display package
7743917 Padlock display package
8453481 Padlock, Glenn P. Meekma, Master Lock Company Llc, filed: Jul 15, 2010, Pub: Jun 4, 2013 - electronic version of 1500iD
D685252 Lock - design only
D685250 Lock - design only
D673836 Lock - design only
D688546 Lock - design only
Bosnia Bill says there are only 3 active tumblers, the key that came with this lock has 6 cuts.
(62) How to Pick Sargent & Greenleaf Model 0881 Environmental Padlock -
(120) How to Make a Key for the Sargent & Greenleaf Environmental Padlock Model 0881 -
Sargent and Greenleaf web page -
4359886 Key lock cylinder for possibly contaminated environments, Walter R. Evans, Gary R. Murphree, Shelly M. Osborne, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Nov 23, 1982 -
4651546 High security rotary disc, pin tumbler type cylinder lock, Walter R. Evans, Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc., Mar 24, 1987 -
Similar to the 831 below, except instead of the key core cover being a drawer on the side of the padlock, it's on the top of the lock under the side of the shackle that opens.
High Security Padlock
Quantity 1 Each
DLA500-87-D-0172 ($3.2 million S&G contract)
Sargent & Greenleaf Inc.
Licensed Under US Patent 3638460
Fig 5 The control key allows removing the lock body slide.
3713309 Key operable padlock with slidable seal for plug, Miller H, Sargent & Greenleaf, Filed: Nov 4, 1971,Pub: Jan 30, 1973
3638460 Locking bars, Berry Daniel Victor, Knott Stanley Gerald Thomas, Ingersoll Locks Ltd, Filed: Jan 3, 1969, Pub: Feb 1, 1972 (Ingersoll Locks, UK)
This padlock has the "Z" shaped removable top. Has embedded ceramic rods to slow down drilling and grindingYouTube: Adrian Weber: Sargent & Greenleaf 951 Military Padlock - Sargent & Greenleaf 951 Military Padlock Core -
Table compiled from LockPicking101
Navy & USMC
US Military outside US
Federal agencies & DOD
3710603 Key operable padlock with rotatable seal for plug
4102162 Padlock having guided wedges for resisting destructive wedge attack
4107965 Padlock having knuckle type anti-wedge-attack structure
4241594 Slide cover type changeable key plug padlock
4763496 High security changeable key cylinder type shackle padlock - to be used with hasp 3572064, 3759557, 3638460, 3744280, Locking bars for high security padlocks
Veeder Root counter. The shackle rotates in only one direction and so each rotation advanced the counter by one. These are really tamper seals so that the person receiving the locked bag knows it has not been opened. By signing the log the person accpeting the locked bag acknowledges that the counter shows the same count as the prior person signed for. Note while these locks are easy to pick, that causes the counter to increment to the next number, hence you know the lock was opened. Note that when the lock reaches 9999 it jams. That prevents someone opening the lock to bring the number back to the starting number.
YouTube: LockPickingLawyer:  Two Registered Mail "Counter" Padlocks Picked and Gutted - two designs, both are 3 pin tumbler types.
(1034) Antique Registered Mail Lock (Thanks LPL!) -
This is a "D" series Registered U.S. Mail lock that was used in the 1930s during the FDR process of reclaiming gold coins and bullion so they had a different key than the key used for ordinary registered mail. After the gold was reclaimed these locks were opened and rekeyed (see the etched "R" added in front of the stamped "D" in Fig 2 below. The RD locks used the standard registered mail key. (See Antique Padlocks for reference)
Fig 1 Counter at 0165
Fig 3 Key must be < 0.058 thick and <0.382 wide <1.78 long
The S&G Safe Deposit Box lock key is 0.068, too thick to fit.
Fig 4 The key for a Mosler Safe Deposit Box is a good fit.
0.057 thk x 0.375 wide x about 1" long.
Fig 5 Single Pin Picked
Note that in use picking and opening
will cause the counter to increment
so the tamper seal aspect works.
1/4 turn from locked.
Now counter is 0166.
Fig 11 "R" series lock
Fig 12 This key sort of works in the above lock.
Maybe removing all the burrs would help?
This may be the key patent
Two patents were granted on the same day with consecutive numbers 536195 and 536196.
The 536196 has a look and feel of this lock.
Looking for patent for the above Registered U.S. Mail padlock. The patents below cover the register lock idea.
13753 Indicator Lock, Nov 6, 1855, D.W.G. Humphrey, - how many times a PO box has been opened.
220124 Lock, H. Clarke, Sep 30, 1879, disk counting wheels & some pick resistance
415187 Padlock, William F. Beasley, Nov 19, 1889, - the prior register padlock shackle could be bent to open it and then replaced. holes and/or notches allow it to break.
415358 Incicator Lock, P. Egge, Beasley Supply Co., Nob 19, 1889, - counter locks up after showing max count.
428710 Indicator Lock, J.C. Barr, May 27, 1890, 70/436 235/106 235/117R 70/13 70/95 -3 digit counter
452433 Registering lock, William F. Beasley, May 19, 1891, - shackle is cast brass over steel core so it will break instead of bending + ratchet for one way shackle rotation
536195 Indicator-lock, Joseph M. Edgar, Smith & Egge Mfg. Co., Mar 26, 1895, 70/437 - band type counter
536196 Indicator-lock, Joseph M. Edgar, Smith & Egge Mfg. Co., Mar 26, 1895, 70/437 70/403 70/455 70/50 - Quill key, not flat key606741 Indicator Lock, W. Scharnweber, July 5, 1898, 70/432; 235/106 - w/digital counter
80637 Indicator Lock, T. Lalor, Aug 4, 1868 - RE10440 Indicator Padlock, Andrew Jackson, Jan 29, 1884 -
123558 Improvement in indicator-padlocks, H. William Dopp, Feb 13, 1872,
124270 Improvement in indicator-padlocks, Feedeeick J. Hoyt, Mar 5, 1872, 70/435 235/125 346/48 -
8881558 Combination and key operated locks with indicators, Michael O. Misner, Jian-Bing Lu, Xiuxing Lai, Nov 11, 2014 - long list of citations -
The earliest indicator padlocks had a provision for a train car destination city, but not the indicator function of the post office:
540006 Padlock, Slaymaker, May 28, 1895 - swing open type
686882 Padlock, Waldo R Ballou, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Jan 7, 1901 -
--------- placeholder patents for different lock ----
1243 Padlock, Joseph Nock, July 16, 1839 - resist false key or by hammer blow.
33920 Padlock, E.M. & J.E. Mix, Dec 10, 1861, - hinge open, almost round body, center front keyway level lock - can turn key in either direction, false key will make full turn and not damage lock - "U.S. Internal Revenue" padlock "Townsend Man'fg Co. Buffalo NY Patd Dec.10.61 July.27.69
98513 Indicator Lock, E.M. & J.E. Mix, Jan 4, 1870 (07/27/1869), - each tine the shackle opens the counter advances
Catalog No. 28 (1922) says there are unlimited "key changes" for the Champion 6-lever lock. 6^6 = 46,656 possible keys, so close to unlimited. But for the Empier 6-lever there are only 12 key changes.
Fig 1 Champion 6-Lever, should be easy to take apart
copper wire is 0.080" ie. 12 AWG
105710 Padlock, Daniel E. Miller (sic), Jul 26, 1870, 70/38C 70/405 - bent key inse-rts on front face, lever lock
143831 Seal Locks, &c., Daniel K. Miller, Oct 28, 1873, 70/50; 70/38C; 70/39 - mentions patent published Jul 26, 1870 - "Seal" because a paper seal on the moving bolt is destroyed when the lock is opened. To that end it's possible to remove the bolt from the lock body.
143990 Pad-Locks, &c., Daniel K. Miller, Oct 21, 1873, 70/38C; 70/387 - key enters at 3'oclock, not 5'oclock like is common. double bitted key (2 sets of levers).
695347 Padlock, Frank Soley, Miller Lock Company, Mar 11, 1902, 70/38C; 70/387 -
1384682 Padlock, Frank Soley, Miller Lock Company, Jul 12, 1921, 70/38.00C, 70/387, 70/52 - a newer version where the push key is at the bottom center. The key goes through a tunnel to align it prior to coming in contact with the levers, better key control. Much stronger cast steel body and cover plates to resist hammering.
146856 Pad-Locks, Herrmann Ahrenb, Romer & Co., Jan 27, 1874, - key at 6 O'clock.
158111 Pad-Locks &c., Daniel K. Miller, Dec 22, 1874, - rectangular, key off center at bottom
228656 Padlock, Joseph Loch, Jun 8, 1880, - rectangular, key at center of bottom
232070 Indicator Lock, H.L. Russell, Sept. 7, 1880, - indicatgor window w/single digit counter, key at 5 O'clock
414261 Permutation Lock, E.C. Smith, Nov 5, 1889, - feel similar to post office counter lock above, but w/0 counter, flat key
Antique Locks: "Picking The Push Key Padlock (Pancake)" - by measuring the depth of the gates. Includes table of the 6 cut depths in 0.015" steps. ILCO T131 blank
Fig 1 Brass/Bronze Body - Center Key
Shackle hinges open - 52mm body width
2" Model: 854
Fig 2 Key has oval cross section.
Fig 11 Steel Body - Side Key aka: Push Key
Shackle pops up then rotates - 52mm body width
Model: 2" 805F
Fig 12 flat key .050 thk x 0.30 wide x ?long
This is a pin tumbler lock.
Fig 13 Kroil sprayed into keyhole,
Racked while pulling on shackle.
Kroil applied to now at top left,
Core size is 0.511".
Fig 14 Sheet metal bar retains shackle.
Remove to free shackle.
Fig 21 2" Model 805F
Key (0.036" thk) has same number as lock Y2691
Fig 22 Model 805F
Fig 31 2" Model: 9425B
Lower front center warded (hollow) key
Maybe patent 1127213
Fig 32 Model: 9425B
Fig 41 1-3/4" Yale Jr. "Hermetic" warded No. 324
6 key changes
Warded Pick opens
Fig 42 Two round plates, inner hardened steel and outer cover. The No. 726 also does not have the notched free end on shackle.
partially based on patent 1577939
the "Hermetic" aspect, but not the
locking of the free end of the shackle.
Fig 43 Working key made by impressioning
(triangle file is not ideal, but worked.)
key body: 0.058 thk x 0.267 wide
Fig 51 Yale 711PB small 1" padlock
"200 Key Changes"
Fig 52 Yale 711PB small 1" padlock
"200 Key Changes"
Yale Padlock Patents685289 Lock, Frank W Mix, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Oct 29, 1901, 70/38A; 70/51 - 6-pin tumbler, center key
686882 Padlock, Waldo R Ballou, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Nov 19, 1901, 70/38C; 70/33; 70/361; 70/372; 70/53 - 4-pin tumbler, both center and side key versions.
920692 Padlock, Henry R Towne, May 4, 1909, 70/52 - how to bend sheet metal to make lock case
1127213 Padlock, Charles A Erichson, Feb 2, 1915, 70/46; 70/421 - round body, front key, hinge open
1278599 Lock, Thomas E Crouch, Sep 10, 1918, 70/38A; 70/375; 70/380 - 5-Pin tumbler, center key. Improves on 685289 by fixing the hammer strike open problem.
1525815 Padlock, Alfred Lawrence, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Feb 10, 1925, 70/38A; 70/375; 70/380 - 5-pin tumbler, center key, dead lock prevents rapping or jarring open
1577939 Padlock, Tunison Harold L, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Mar 23, 1926, 70/38A; 70/52 - bulging ball type (aka: 324, 326) - bottom center warded key, steel body
1885983 Lock, Karl A Brauning, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, Nov 1, 1932, 70/346, 70/490, 70/DIG.740 - can not easily make skeleton key
2282983 Padlock cylinder retainer, Lach Joseph S, Yale & Towne Mfg Co, May 12, 1942, 70/52, 70/38.00A, 70/370 - center key
Bobby Keyz(162) Key controle when making a key for a Antique "Yale" push lock -
Segal Patents1387187 Padlock, Samuel Segal, Aug 9, 1921, 70/38.00A, 70/53 - Norwegian style
1439131 Padlock, Samuel Segal, Segal Metal Products Company, Dec 19, 1922, 70/38.00A, 70/39 -
1580574, Padlock, Samuel Segal, Segal Metal Products Company, Apr 13, 1926, 70/38.00A, 70/369, 70/367 -
See Disc Tumbler above.
I think this is a lever lock, although there do not seem to be any springs, so also maybe a disk type?
The key is retained when the lock is open.
Fig 2 when inserted the hole in the key is facing the front. Needs to be turned about 2/3 of a circle to open.
Belfry 2 lever patent 326346 padlockwith two keys marked patent 397147.
Quality stainless steel construction.
A general purpose kit for Single Pin Picking (SPP) mostly of pin tumbler locks, but also works for other types.
Picks fit into case as if in a bag.
Not as nice as my prior set (now hiding from me) where each pick has it's own compartment, so when opened you see them all in their place.
Here you need to dump and sort them every time.
Although there are 4 torque wrenches they are all the same size material. Better if different sizes and types of wrenches.
Aimed at double sided wafer locks, like the Detex.
Aimed at single sided wafer locks.
GOSO 24 piece Set
Poorly made general purpose set that includes pin tumbler practice padlock.
BangGood Disk Tumbler 2-in-1 lever lock pick Tools
Lock Cylinder Plug .500 Dia Follower
For making key for Yale Push Key Padlock
ILCO 6" Lock Pinning Tweezers 899-00-51
Note that if you try to pick up a cylindrical object, like a pin, with ordinary tweezers
it is likely that it will be shot out of the tweezers and lost. These have a cylindrical notch
to hole the pin.
Warded Lock Pick Tools
Warded Lock Pick Tools
The antique-Locks forum has a category: "Caskets, Coffers & Chests
This appealing category is for single skin locking boxes and might include items like: Chests, Deed Boxes, Dispatch Boxes, Money Boxes, Toy Banks, etc., and made from a range of materials including, brass, cast iron, iron, steel, wood, plastic, porcelain, etc."
Containers can be classified as:
Safe (Wiki) Secure lockable box.
Fire Safe (Wiki) Pretty much all of the safes sold in retail stores are only for protection from fire, not burglary (Wiki)
Vault (Wiki) Unlike safes, vaults are an integral part of the building within which they are built, using armored walls and a tightly fashioned door closed with a complex lock.
File Cabinet (Wiki) Can be modified with a locking bar to accept a padlock, like the S&G 8088 or 8077.
Piggy Bank (Wiki) Might be secure from very small children.
Ebay about $10
I don't get why someone would use one of these. The idea of security through obscurity (Wiki) was popular up to about 1851, but today is seen as not such a good idea. Any burglar (Wiki) worth the name would know of commercial products designed to hide valuables, so this fake book or the electrical outlet, clock and other such concealment devices would be discovered. If you want to use concealment, then come up with your own version. One idea is to consider the first rule of camouflage (Wiki) To hide something put it in surroundings that look just like it. If something stands out it will be looked at.
If concealment is how this is supposed to work, then the lock is superfluous. Once it has been found and if it contains valuables, then I've read somewhere it's name changes from a safe to a convenient way to carry the valuables. In other words it will be carries to the location where it's pried open. When I was working at Aertech, a microwave semiconductor company, one Monday morning the safe that we used to hold all the gold wire was gone. The burglars had wheeled it from the front of the building out the back door and taken it away. It was later found out near the San Francisco bay opened and empty. The lock might and might not keep children from opening it, so maybe it's useful for parents to keep things they don't want their children getting.
eBay about $21 It's amazing that you get so much for so little. But security is not one of the things you get. I recently saw a version of this that added a time lock function where that control panel is on the inside of the door with a starting price of $281! It was based on this exact unit. Amazon sells the time lock unit for $215.
The two included anchor bolts can be used either in the bottom or back wall to attach the safe to something that should make it more difficult to just walk away with it.
There are a plethora of YouTube videos with titles like "how to open digital safe" where the subject is this model. Some of the ways are:
- Wiggle the opening knob while banging your hand or a rubber hammer on the top
- Banging on the top of the control panel with a can of beer, padlock, Bic lighter, potato, karate chop with the heel of your hand,
- Bounce it on your bed or drop on table (Defcon)
- Using a hammer and chissel cut off the control panel and the cam lock, use finger in cam lock hole to release locking bar.
- Use tubular lock impressioning tool (different from tubular lock picking tool), you just press it, like the Bic pen attack.
- use something that fluoresces under black light, like laundry soap, Vitamin A dissolved in vinegar, spinach, &Etc., to find the possible numbers from the keyboard. To be done before the safe is opened.
- If bolted down use hammer and pry bar to peel door open.
- Use a strong (3" dia x 1+" thick) magnet at the upper left of the door. You can hear a click as the solenoid pulls in.
- Use Pendaflex file folder metal rod bent with 2 right angles like a slim-jim to press the reset button
- Drill the mechanical lock.
- If the mechanical lock is of the wafer type, then jiggler keys may easily open it or a bobby pin inserted loop end first and then spread and used a jiggler, or the blade of scissors.
The keypad is the only electronic part outside the container, unlike other digital safes where the control board is also outside the box, so this is a little better in that respect. The batteries, control board and solenoid are all inside the container. But that causes a problem if the battery dies and so a mechanical lock is added as a bypass for the electrical lock and that adds a weakness.
The control board is based on a Elan Microelectronics p/n: EM78P153 microcontroller. 8-pin DP U2 and an associated resistor are not populated on the control board. Not sure what added functionality it might add (let me know).
The 3 column x 4 row keyboard connects to the control board by means of a 7 conductor ribbon cable.
The reset button connects to the control board by means of the White and Yellow wires.
The 4 each series AA batteries (6 Volts) connect to the control board by means of the Red and Black wires.
The solenoid connects to the control board by means of the 2 Blue wires.
Some other safes locate the battery, control board and the keypad outside the container and so have 4 wires (2 keypad, 2 solenoid) going through the hole in the container. This removes the requirement of a mechanical bypass lock since the batteries can be replaced while the container remains locked. These safes can be opened by "spiking", i.e. connecting a battery directly to the solenoid wires.
A better arrangement would be to have the battery and keypad outside the container and the control board inside along with the reset switch.
The Kaba Mas X-07 combination high security electronic lock uses a motor rather than a solenoid to avoid the bumping problem and uses the dial as an electrical generator to avoid the use of batteries.
Fig 1 Tear at top left corner, metal parts rattling
Fig 2 Batteries and anchor bolts loose inside.
eBay about $15
Fig 1 I have one of these when I was young,
and opened it without knowing the combo.
Fig 2 two disk combination lock.
Shown in open position.
Fig 3 While combination is printed on bottom,
it's easier and faster to just pull and turn knob
until door slightly opens then turn in other direction.
eBay about $15
Fig 2 Nice quality, but not at all secure.
Both a cheap lock and someone can take
the whole box and open it later.
Fig 3 It's questionable if the lock is
strong enough to carry with the handle
without it opening and spilling coins.
Patents758340 Savings-bank, Robert John Thompson, Apr 26, 1904, 232/5 - rectangular, sheet metal finger to keep from shaking coins out
793779 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, ?, Jul 4, 1905, - round, sloped spring loaded pin to prevent extracting coins
990534 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Apr 25, 1911, - round, sloped spring loaded pin to prevent extracting coins, more durable and holds more coins than 793779
1072709 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Co., Sep 9, 1913, 232/44 - Oval,improved tamper resistance by spring loaded slot blocker
1073847 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Sep 23, 1913, - Oval, lower mfg cost, resilient stamped sheet metal slot guards
1159834 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Nov 9, 1915, 232/6 - oval, lower mfg cost & improved operation
1150525 Savings-bank, Ivert Larsen, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Aug 17, 1915, 232/5 - round, improved lock and coin slot guards
1157303 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Oct 19, 1915, 232/5 - oval, improved lock
1170525 Savings-bank, Charles Fisher, Automatic Recording Safe Company, Feb 8, 1916, 232/5, 206/.83 - rectangular, coins sit at 45 deg
Fig 1 Herman Safe Co. San Francisco, Direct Entry Fence
Fig 2 Inside
Fig 3 Close to patent 489447 below
Screw can be seen through notch.
It looks like the pins that determine the combination
can be moved to different positions since there are
threaded holes in all 3 disks.
Fig 4 Sargent and Greenleaf Lever Lock (See above)
489447 Permutation-lock, Jan 10, 1893, "...a novel construction whereby the driving pins or lugs of the tumblers can be set so as to change the combination and produce another given combination,.."
200070 Improvement in tumblers for permutation-locks, J. Loch, Feb 5, 1878 - Easy combination change
4233913 Safe Door, John C. Herrmann, Herrmann John C, Nov 18, 1980, 109/59.00T, 109/64, 70/1.5, 70/119 - round door with lugs spaced 120 deg, built-in combo lock - not for use with standard lock bodies.
This is both a way of opening locks (when starting without a key) , (this paragraph might have also been placed under lock picking) and a way of making keys to fit a locked lock. The basic idea is that when a key type lock is locked and the key is turned with some force the force that resists the turning of the key also makes marks on the key. By filing down those marks a little at a time the key is shaped so as to remove all the restraining force and open the lock.
The Kryptonite bicycle lock used a tubular pin tumbler lock that was self impressioning, that's to say when the plastic tube of a Bic pen was forced into the lock the pins pushed back with just the correct force to deform the plastic so that it became a key.
I made a key for a 1-3/4" Yale Jr. "Hermetic" warded No. 324 padlock by impressioning, see Fig 43 above.
Transponder Car Keys (Wiki) - Electronic ignition keys
Some of these may use RF-ID technology with an activation frequency of either 125 kHz or 133 kHz.
The Mercedes ignition key uses a battery and IR for the ignition key funciton as well as door lock and unlock & panic button.
MB calls it Keyless-Go (WIki: Remote Keyless System)
A mechanical door (ignition?) lock key is hidden inside in case the battery goes dead while the car is unlocked.
Demonstrating that the door lock functions are IR.
Using a photo diode to audio device.
5836187 Tumberless automobile ignition lock, Strattec Security Corporation, Nov 17, 1998
6546768 Ignition lock system for motor vehicles, Daimlerchrysler Ag, Apr 15, 2003 -
20070199812 Electronic Key, Daimlerchrysler Ag, Aug 30, 2007,
6460386 Electronic key structure, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Alpha Corporation, Oct 8, 2002 - a mechanical key is hidden inside the electronic key.
Electronic car door key fobs typically work using a rolling code (Wiki) RF transmitter often around 315 MHz and in these systems the ignition key is a conventional mechanical key. This is very similar to the system used on garage doors (Wiki).
4881148 Remote control system for door locks, Wickes Manufacturing Company, Nov 14, 1989 - seems to be the grandady patent for key fob remote entry car door locks.
The GM RemoteLink mobile app can be hacked: see Defcon 23: Text, UK newspaper article: Hack a garage and the car inside with a child's toy and a few chips - about using Mattel IM-Me
Smart Keys (Wiki)
These make use of RF signals and the key can be kept in your pocket. As you approach a locked car the doors automatically unlock. To start the engine you just press a push-button on the instrument panel. When you walk away from the car it locks. The only problem is when husband and wife both have keys and different personal seat & mirror settings.New Your TImes: Keeping Your Car Safe From Electronic Thieves - Boris Danev: papers - Relay Attacks on Passive Keyless Entry and Start Systems in Modern Cars.
Passive Keyless Entry and Start = PKES. Passive means the user does not need to touch the key.
Some of these PKES systems work using LF radio transmitting from the car to the key and UHF radio from the key back to the car. So aLF RF power amplifier using a small loop near the car and a larger loop for transmitting could amplify the car's signal and allow a key hundreds of feet away to hear the query. The range of the UHF reply from the key is easily hundreds of feet. The counter measure is to store the smart key in a metal box (aluminum foil would work) when you are away from your car.
1995798 Key cutting machine, Curtis William H, Mar 26, 1935, 30/131, 30/229, 409/81 - hand operated like pliers1089127 Duplicating-machine, August H Gussman, Gussman Key Cutting Machine Co, Mar 3, 1914, 409/81 - hand cranked bench top - cutting wheel
2626663 Key cutting machine, Howard Abrams, Curtis Ind Inc, Jan 27, 1953, 30/131, 409/82, 30/229 - improvement to the above pliers type.
1156642 Key-cutting machine, Archibald E Sutliff, Sargent & Co, Oct 12, 1915, 409/82 - hand cranked bench top - cutting wheel
DEFCON 14: Safecracking Without a Trace by Eric Schmiedl - nice overview of combination lock history (Non-destructive Entry).
The idea is to open the safe without anyone knowing that it's been opened. Topics:DEFCON 16: Open in 30 Seconds: Cracking One of the Most Secure Locks in America - Medeco key locks - the book by the same title gets poor reviews because it does not come with the "government only" DVD which shows the "how to" information.
Manipulation - book: The Art of Manipulation, Direct Entry Fence, Nose & Cam, The problem with time locks, S&G 8400 Manipulation proof lock, Group IR locks use plastic wheels: robot dialers, Mas-Hamilton Group Soft-Drill & then Kaba Mas XO7 safe lock, Other ways to get into safes, Are safes secure?, TL-15, TL-30 (tools), TRTL-(tools & torch) (Wiki), TXTL-(tools, torch & explosives), Further Reading (one of the basis of this Rerences section). Note Neutron imaging (SPIE, DARPA) can see the plastic through lead.
Defcon 19: DIY Non-Destructive-Entry by Wiki, YouTube, Official web page - combination locks
The National Locksmith Guide to Manipulation.pdf - free on line
Locks, Safes and Security by Marc Weber Tobias (Wiki, YouTube, Official web page & blog: Security.org, )
Matt Blaze (Wiki, YouTube, Official web page, papers & blog: Crypto.org, Safe Cracking for the Computer Scientist.pdf
Safecracking at the NSA.pdf - the NSA combo 52-22-37 (15 count seperation) translates to 5BABES, Matt's 10 digit seperation combo 37-22-27 os FRACAS.
Youtube: bosnianbill instructional lock picking videos, Lock Lab,
DOD Lock Program - Introduction to Combination Locks -
YouTube: Lockpicking, Safecracking, & More by Deviant Ollam & renderman at ShmooCon 3 , Combo lock session - DeviantOllam
YouTube: "defcon safe cracking" -
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