Submarines

© Brooke Clarke 2017

Background
Description
Key Components
Patents
Related
References
Links

Background

I followed the stories about the Russian K-129 (Wiki) for many decades and have had an interest in submarines for much longer.  Recently learning about sonobuoys and torpedos has rekindled that interest.  This page was made as I started to read Going Deep: John Philip Holland and the invention of the attack submarine (2017) by Lawrence Goldstone as a way to keep track of the patents.

Description

From prior reading the crush depth for a W.W.II submarine is about the same as it's length, on the order of a few hundred feet.  It took a lot of improvement in metallurgy and sub design to get to the deep diving subs of today.

John P. Holland
                - Wiki photoJohn Holland (Wiki) is the father of today's submarine, and in the patents section below are key problems he solved.  In Reference 1 there are many dozen early designs for underwater vehicles, but they all suffer major problems.  Patent 815350 (below) shows some sailors so gives a rough idea of the size of the first Holland Sub.  The Electric Boat Co. (Wiki) was formed to build Holland Subs.

At what time was the air compressor for charging the Whitehead torpedoes on board the sub and if it was not then how long between charging the torpedoes until the air leaked out cutting the range in half?

When was the periscope added (it was not part of the Holland design).  In patent 522177 (below) item L is called a Camera Obscura, but is shown as a periscope without any lenses.

Simon Lake designed a series of submarines (see Ref 3) that dived while level by using diving planes ahead of the conning tower.  They also had wheels so could "drive" on hard bottoms (Wiki: NR-1)

Royal Navy - Holland 1 -



John Holland was cheated out of his patents and removed from the Electric Boat Co. To be replaced by the technician Frank Cable who used electrical heating to dry out electrical cables in a sub the sank.

Key Components

Hull

The early patents are all about control and stability underwater.  The major concept missing from earlier attempts.  Sort of like the key thing the Wright Brothers brought to airplanes was a control system so it could be steered.  Prior aeroplanes were focused exclusivity on flying rather than crashing.

Propulsion

The very first scale model used a clockwork as a power source.  The first sub built for the nave was designed to have a combined gasoline engine and a DC motor, but the U.S. Navy changed that to a steam boiler, like used on surface ships, but that turned out to make the inside so hot that no humans could be involved.

Electro-Dynamic Co. (Wiki) made electric motors for electric Launch Co. (Wiki ELCO) which were later used in submarines.  W.W. Griscom (Wiki) died in 1897. In 1899 Isaac Rice (Wiki) took over (cheated) John Holland of his patents, took over his company and renamed it Electric Boat Co. (Wiki).  He also controlled ELCO and Electric Storage Battery Co. (Wiki) (later called Exide Co.  In 1952 Electric Boat Co. became part of General Dynamics (Wiki).
356834 Electric motor, William W. Griscom, Feb 1, 1887, 310/40R; 310/216.094; 310/60R; 310/64 - more efficient than prior art motors
397424 Connection of electrical circuits, WIlliam W. Griscom, Henry N. Weiner, Electro Dynamic Co., Feb 5, 1889, 307/9.1; 200/51.1; 307/66; 439/291 -  

In the very late 1890s the gasoline engine was replaced by a diesel engine (Wiki) made in Germany which was much safer.
542846 Method and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work, Rudolf Diesel, July 16, 1895, 123/27R; 123/1R; 123/25C; 123/25Q; 123/294; 123/58.4; 123/65VB; 60/39.76 -

Periscope

Function
Periscope
                      with LensesThe periscope at left uses an special prism to get the image right side up, but suffers in that the distance between (a) and (b) is fixed.
The lenses comprise a right angle telescope.

The periscope at right makes use of collimated light between (c1) and (c2) so the distance between these two lenses can be changed without any effect on the image.  This allows the periscope to telescope.










By Christian Schirm - Own work, after/nach Lexikon der Optik, Spektrum Verlag, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=522876

While there were various periscopes (Wiki)  long before their use in submarines, one of the first for a sub was by Simon Lake for his "lake submarine".
Victorian Telescope Makers: The Lives & Letters of Thomas & Howard Grubb by I.G. Glass, 1997 (book on order 15 Aug 2017)

751569 Altiscope
                      or the Like, L.Y. Spear, Electric Boat Co., Feb 9,
                      1904
751569 Altiscope or the Like, L.Y. Spear, Electric Boat Co., Filed: Mar 14, 1903, Pub: Feb 9, 1904, 359/402; 114/340 - can move + or - 30 deg from center line of sub (60 deg total).

832219 Means for preventing condensation in optical tubes, Lawrence Y Spear, Electric Boat Co, Filed: May 26, 1904, Pub: Oct 2, 1906, 114/340; 359/512 - vacuum pump and dry air


751569 Altiscope or the Like, L.Y. Spear, Electric Boat Co., Feb 9, 1904, 359/402; 114/340 - can move + or - 30 deg from center line of sub (60 deg total).
832219 Means for preventing condensation in optical tubes, Lawrence Y Spear, Electric Boat Co, Filed: May 26, 1904, Pub: Oct 2, 1906, 114/340; 359/512 - vacuum pump and dry air
954707 Device for conning submarine boats, Lawrence Y Spear, Electric Boat Co, Priority: May 26, 1904, Pub: Apr 12, 1910, 359/405; 114/340 -
849570 Hydroscope, Giuseppe Pino, Apr 9, 1907, 359/402; 114/66; 359/895 -  uses mirrors not lens, to look underwater from above the surface.
1222156 Cleaning periscope-glasses, Joseph A Steinmetz, Apr 10, 1917, 359/509, 52/171.1, 114/340 -  

Patents

In Going Deep, Chapter 1 there is the recounting of the W.W. I battle of September 22, 1914 (Wiki) involving the British Battle Cruisers (Wiki) HMS Aboukir (Wiki), HMS Hogue (Wiki) and HMS Cressy (Wiki)  and the German U-9 (Wiki) armed with 18" Whitehead design torpedos that use the Brotherhood 3 cylinder radial engine. (NavWeaps)

Patent
                      Drawing 239046 Screw Propeller, John P. Holland, Mar 22, 1881, 416/90R; 416/90A -
Patent
                      Drawing   337000 Hydrocarbon-engine, P. Holland, Mar 2, 1886, 123/275; 123/286; 123/292; 123/41R; 123/41.34; 123/41.76; 123/58.2; 123/61V; 123/69V; 74/567 - based on double acting steam engine valving and designed for street cars.
472670
                      Submergible torpedo-boat, John P. Holland, Apr 12,
                      1892
472670 Submergible torpedo-boat, John P. Holland, Apr 12, 1892, 114/333; 114/1; 114/334 - steam powered with tall smoke stack (4) and snorkel (15), conning tower (16), fore and aft torpedo or gun tubes (6).
Patent
                      Drawing 491051 Submarine gun, John P. Holland, Jan 31, 1893, 89/5; 114/320; 89/1.51; 89/31 - shoots a dart trailing a line which is connected to an explosive.  For attacking wooden ships
Patent
                      Drawing Patent
                      Drawing 492960 Steering apparatus for submarine vessels, John P. Holland, Mar 7, 1893, 114/152; 114/163; 114/311; 114/332  -  cables over pulleys - similar to early aircraft

522177 Submarine
                      Torpedo Boat, P. Holland, Jun 26, 1894
522177 Submarine Torpedo Boat, P. Holland, Jun 26, 1894, 114/327; 114/179; 114/210; 114/238; 114/335; 114/340; 405/192; 89/5 -
There are a number of details.
537113
                      Submergible boat, John P. Holland, Apr 9, 1895
537113 Submergible boat, John P. Holland, Apr 9, 1895, 114/317; 114/238; 405/185 - Fuel pump (e1) and water pump (e2) maintain boat weight.  Torpedoes stored in cylinders that are filled with water pushing piston the removed torpedo, maintaining boat weight.

1897  Holland V "Plunger" (Wiki) - 85' long, 12' diameter, two torpedo tubes - experimental sub

1897 Holland VI (USS Holland SS-1) (Wiki) -experimental sub
681222 Submarine
                      vessel, John P Holland, ‎Electric Boat Co, Aug 27,
                      1901,
681222 Submarine vessel, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Aug 27, 1901, 114/333 -

HMS Holland 1 1901 (Wiki) - 63' 10" long, 11' 9" beam, Petrol engine + Electric motor, one each 18" torpedo tube & 3 Whitehead (Wiki) torpedoes
Royal Navy Submarine Museum - HMS Holland I -
Patent
                      Drawing 684698 Storage battery, Robert Mca Lloyd, Electric Boat Co, Oct 15, 1901, 206/524.3; 190/40; 217/131; 429/176 - rugged
Patent
                      Drawing 693272 Automatic diving mechanism for submarine boats, John P Holland, ‎Feb 11, 1902, 114/332; 114/25; 114/285 - while aimed at subs & torpedoes, this mechanism may have suffered from the same torpedo depth control issues ("The Secret")
683400 Submarine
                      boat, John P Holland, Sep 24, 1901
683400 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Sep 24, 1901, 114/317; 114/238; 114/319 - Weight compensation for torpedo firing
Patent
                      Drawing 684429 Visual indicator for submarine boats, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Oct 15, 1901, 73/178R; 33/391; 73/299 - inclination & depth
694154 Submarine
                      boat or vessel, John P Holland, Feb 25, 1902
694154 Submarine boat or vessel, John P Holland, Feb 25, 1902, 114/333 - allow for difference in water density between fresh and salt water and pay attention to the relative locations of the centers of buoyancy and gravity.
Patent
                      DrawingPatent
                      DrawingPatent
                      Drawing 696971 Firing-valve for subsurface expulsion-tubes, John P Holland, ‎Apr 8, 1902, 114/238 - "submarine torpedo tube"
Patent
                      Drawing 696972 Submarine boat, John P Holland, ‎Apr 8, 1902, 114/337; 114/185 - venting fuel tank to outside, while taking in air from the inside
Patent
                      Drawing 681221 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Aug 27, 1901, 114/333; 114/25 - automatic maximum depth mechanism
Patent
                      Drawing 694153 Means for automatically ballasting submarine boats, John P Holland, Feb 25, 1902, 114/333; 114/25 - fresh v. salt water
694643 Submarine
                      boat, John P Holland, Mar 4, 1902, 114/339 -
                      Exterior compass mounting
694643 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Mar 4, 1902, 114/339 - Exterior compass mounting - at attempt to escape the problem of an all metal boat (I expect it did not work.  The Gyrocompass was invented expressly so that metallic boats and submarines could have a compass.
Patent
                      DrawingPatent
                      Drawing 702728 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Jun 17, 1902, 114/333 - setting centers of gravity, buoyancy & volume for surface or submerged running
Patent
                      Drawing 702729 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Electric Boat Co, Jun 17, 1902, 114/333; 114/338 - buoyancy considerations for running on surface and submerged
Patent
                      Drawing 706561 Submarine boat, John P Holland, Aug 12, 1902, 114/333 - quick fill and dump ballast tank
708553 Submarine
                      boat, John P Holland, ‎Sep 9, 1902, 114/334;
                      114/339 - adds deck or promenade for the crew
708553 Submarine boat, John P Holland, ‎Sep 9, 1902, 114/334; 114/339 - adds deck or promenade for the crew
Patent
                      Drawing 713198 Torpedo-boat, Francis W Brady, Electric Boat Co, Nov 11, 1902, 114/238 - torpedo tube for sub

738879 Automatic diving mechanism for submarine boats, Francis W Brady, Electric Boat Co, Sep 15, 1903, 114/332; 114/25 - see 693272 above
Patent
                      Drawing 739735 Compensating device for submarine or submergible boats, Lawrence Y Spear, Electric Boat Co, Sep 22, 1903, 114/238 - torpedo weight 
Patent
                      Drawing 764556 Clinometer, Frank T Cable, Electric Boat Co, Jul 12, 1904,  33/381; D10/69 - two tubes with different radius (different sensitivity) 

815350 Submarine
                      boat, John P Holland, ‎Mar 20, 1906
815350 Submarine boat, John P Holland, ‎Mar 20, 1906, 114/333 - minimize liquid slosh problems by placing tanks near center of buoyancy

832219 Means for preventing condensation in optical tubes, Lawrence Y Spear, Electric Boat Co, Oct 2, 1906, 114/340; 359/512 - for periscopes  

There are many more patents by Electric Boat Co.

Related

 Sonobuoys, CRT-1 Sonobuoy, Gibson Girl CRT-3,

Torpedoes, naval mines, hedgehogs

Gyroscopes -

References


1. Submarine Navigation Past and Present, 1903 - has many drawings of early attempts at submarine design.  The word "navigation" means something like a survey, not finding your position.

2. Going Deep: John Philip Holland and the invention of the attack submarine (2017) by Lawrence Goldstone
3. The Submarine in War and Peace, Simon Lake, 1918
4. The Defender: The Story of General Dynamics by Roger Franklin, 1986 - Note that GD started out with Electric Boat and after W.W.II added other companies.

Links

PRC68, Alphanumeric Index of Web pages, Contact, Products for Sale
Page Created 5 Aug 2017