Weather

© Brooke Clarke 2000 - 2005


On Line Weather Station
Introduction
Forecasting
News Groups
Organizations
Schools
Weather Web Cams
Vendors
Reports
Satellites
H.F. Radio
Soil Moisture
Personal Weather Web Pages
Global Weather Cells
Information
Instruments

Introduction

I got started weather forecasting using the Sager Weather Caster.  It's a book with a multi-disk circular calculator.  There are disks for: These settings translate to a code number [X834]which, when looked up, results in a forecast [SW8] that is quite accurate [S=Rain or showers followed by improvement (within 12 hours, W=Dangerous gale (whole gale) (55 to 73 MPH),  7=West or Northwest winds].  This would make the basis of a single station weather station that could also do forecasts.  By building a data base based on recording the station's recorded data the quality of the forecast could be improved over that that is published in the book.  Copyright 1969 by Raymond M. Sager and E.F. Sager. Published by Weather Publications, County Trust Building, Pleasantville, N.Y. 10570. No ISBN or Lib of Cong #s.

I have an older Heathkit Weather Station with LED displays (ID-4001) but when I connected a ribbon cable to the data port it made a very large amount of radio interference just by being connected.  Maybe the later model with an LCD display and RS-232 interface solved that problem.

Forecasting

Weather Simulator (WXSIM) - shareware, $48 to register - mainly aimed at temperature

News Groups

alt.talk.weather
ne.weather
sci.geo.meteorology - sci.geo.meteorology data sources FAQ -

Organizations

U.S. Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  - National Weather Service (MD) - Western Region Headquarters (UT)- NWS Sacramento (CA)- NOAA WEATHER RADIO RECEIVER - Air Resources Laboratory - Current Meteorology -
Space Environment Center - Today's Space Weather -
AVN Model Forecast Animation - AVN Forecast Model Animations -
Commercial Vendor Home Pages - over 130 listed
NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69 - Chemistry WebBook - free as of 4 Jan. 99, but they may charge for this in the future
REINAS - Real-time Environmental Information Network and Analysis System

U.S. Department of Energy - Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program- Program Measurements -
El Paso NWS Weather Page - The Weather Calculator Script Files -
World Meteorological Organization -
American Meteorological Society -
NorthEast Media of Atmospheric Science -
Exploratorium - Watching Weather: A Low Pressure Book about High Pressure Systems -
Oxenhope Weather Station Data - An automated weather station used to allow a telescope to determine on it's own if it can look into the night sky! Cloud Sensor -
MIT - Lincoln Labs - Aviation Weather - Overview -
Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services (OFCM) - Publications - Federal Standards for Siting Meteoroligical Sensors at Airports -
National Lightning Safety Institute - Links -
Emergency Digital Information Service (EDIS) - California EDIS Message Archive - the EDIS page was down when I edited this page
Air Force Combat Climatology Center - Air Force Weather Technical Library Links -
Joint Weather Training Facility - at Keesler AFB -
Air Pressure - Height & Temperature - Copyright © 1996-1998 Texas A&M University
Space Weather Aeronomical Responses Model - software package that gets it's inputs form the internet
Robo Weatherman -

Schools

University of Illinois - Department of Atmospheric Sciences (DAS) - WW2010 CD-ROM - It is used with an internet browser - Guides - WW2110 web -
University of Michagan - Atmospheric, Ocean and Space -Weather Underground - WeatherNexComputer Model Forecasts - Software Archive -
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - National Center for Atmospheric Research - NCAR's Data Support Section -
Universität zu Köln - IGM - Aktuelle Wetterinfos  - Chart -
Texas A&M Department of Meteorology - METR 475: Radar And Mesoscale Meteorology -
Pennsylvania State University - Department of Meteorology - Basic Meteorology - Bad Meteorology FAQ - GP1 Lightning Locator -

Weather Web Cameras

page of links -
Rob's Live Weather Cams -
Weather Links - Weather Cams -
Live Web Camera from the National Earthquake Information Service -
Weather from Mendocino, CA - Web Weather View - works with: Davis WM II & WW III, Oregon Scientific WM918, Maximum WeatherMAX, Rainwise WS-2000, Texas Weather Inst WR-25
Mendocino Coast Weathercam -

Vendors

1-Button - based on Dallas Semi 1-wire technology (also see Texas Weather)
Allentown Weather Center - Weather Instruments - by Tommy Owens -
American Weather Enterprises -
Amplicon - data loggers
Avatel -
Applied Technologies, Inc. - links - Sonic Anemometers, Hygrometers, Data Collection and Processing, Relaxed Eddy Accumulators (REA), Flux measurment Systems, Radar, and other Meteorological Equipment
Ben Meadows Company - water measers & general outdoor
Boltek - StormTracker detects lightning strikes up to 300 miles away and plots them in real time on a map of your area.(magnetic detection)
Campbell Scientific, Inc. - complete tower type stations
Casella - solarimeter - an other instruments
Data Professionals  - Heathkit parts - Heathkit ID-4001 CPU Adapter Board with serial I/O and EEPROM memory
Davis Instruments Corp - WeatherLink Toolbox™ 1.0  (web publishing tool) - Scientific Sales, Inc. - good prices
Dynamax Inc. - plant bio-sensors, plant transpiration measurement, plant bio-productivity and environmental conditions
Exponential Software -
Fascinating Electronics, Inc. - Observer Meteorological Station -
Forest Technology Systems -
FT Technologies Ltd - FT702 Ultrasonic hand held or fixed mounted Anemometer -
General Eastern Instruments - Protimeter - moisture meters
Handar - Ultrasonic Wind Sensor -
Instrumentation météorologique à l'usage -
ISA, the International Society for Measurement and Control. - search results for "METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION" -
IRDAM SA - no moving parts "wet finger" wind speed & direction method- US Patent No 4905513 -
JS Exports (India) - Campbell-Stokes Sunshine recorder
Maximum - WeatherMAX - TriGeo (web tool)
MesoTech International -
Morgan Weather Measurement System - PIC based
NovaLynx - large catalog of weather stuff
Onset - data loggers
Oregon Scientific, Inc. - Weather products - Model WM 918 is carried by Radio Shack as the WX-200 (63-1015) - Parts page -
Paroscientific - pressure & other weather instruments
Questech inc. - makes the Heathkit ID-5001 weather station & has some parts for the other Heathkit weather stations ( http://www.questech-inc.com/ is no longer a valid link, they probably are out of business?)

Peet Bros.  -
US4969358: Electronic altimeter/barometer
US05361633 11/08/1994 Method and apparatus for wind speed and direction measurement
US05231876 08/03/1993 Method and apparatus for wind speed and direction measurement
US05033402 07/23/1991 Metric/English orometer
US05001929 03/26/1991 Electronic altimeter
US04969358 11/13/1990 Electronic altimeter/barometer
Point Six - Based on Dallas Semiconductor 1- wire technology
RainWise - WS-2000 418 MHz Weather Station  -
R. M. Young Co. - 3D ultrasonic wind speed & other weather instruments
Robert White Instruments - more than 40 years as an instrument dealer. Weather & Marine Instruments
Sensor Metrics, Inc.- Environmental Measurement Systems
Stormwise - Home Lightning Detection and Severe Storm Detection
Texas Weather Instruments, Inc. - Manufacturer of Digital Weather Stations - WR25 - Weather View 32  (web tool) -
Tracking The Eye - free trial version
Unofficial Radio Shack WX-200 Electronic Weather Station Support Page -
Vaisala -  electronic measurement systems and equipment for meteorology and the environmental sciences, traffic safety and industry
Weather View 32 - Real-time Weather Station Monitoring with Internet Support -$129 to $999 depending on features
WeatherExperts.com - dealer
Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) - Total Sky Imager (TSI-440A) - Ultraviolet Instrumentation -

Reports

Mendocino College
        Weather

Everwonder -
USA Today  Weather - not only reporting but basics
Crown Weather Services -
Convective Detection radar -
Global Atmosp[herics Inc. Lightening Explorer -
Plymouth State College (PSC) Weather Center- US Temperatures -
Weather Watches & Warnings -
The Ohio State University Atmospheric Sciences Program- Severe Damage Reports -
Accu Weather - Doppler radar -
Weather in Europe and other regions in the world -
Ballooning -
Eumetsat -
Dundee Satellite Receiving Station -
U.S. Navy Weather Satellite Images - Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center West, Guam -
Landings: Every Weather Link Known... Aviation Weather for Pilots
Geo Info Systems - magazine
Tim's Weather Projects - Basic Stamp Lightning Activity Monitor - up to 50 miles - One-Wire Lightning Monitor -

Satellites

HF-FAX- visual radio modes including weather fax and sats - WX sat page- with interesting antenna articles
WEATHER FROM ABOVE: How to Receive Weather Satellite Imagery in the Comfort of Your Home -
QTH.NET - This site is dedicated to the sole purpose of furthering the abilities and interests of the Amateur Radio Community - subscribe to HearSat-L
Remote Imaging Group -
Quadrifilar Helix Antennas -  the best antenna? to use for APT satellite reception at 137.5 MHz
GEOS - government site about these geostationary weather satellites
US Satellite Laboratory -
Dartcom -
FAS - China's NSMC - APT/WEFAX, Digital weather satellite ground stations
TECNAVIA -
Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation - The Lindenblad: The Ultimate Satellite Omni Antenna - Satellite Antennas Hints and Kinks -
137mHz APT QUADRAFILAR ANTENNA -
WinOrbit: Satellite Tracking- also see my Satellites info (lookig AT satellites)
Chips, the Copenhagen Image Processing System - software package for remote sensing image processing and spatial data analysis with extensive support for NOAA
                AVHRR data.
Remote Imaging Group (RIG) - RX2 kit for RIG members (over 1,000 in use)
GTI Electronics - ground stations
Northern Video Graphics - High Resolution Digital Systems, Weather Facsimile Systems
Systems West - shipboard systems
SMARTech  - antennas for LEO sata and related electronics
Home Made Link Page -
NOAA's Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution  (OSDPD) - Computer Readable Code Format, WEFAX Products -

HF Radio

Short Wave (H.F.) RT Network Frequencies - used by airplanes over the ocean for weather info
Sferics - Radio Signals caused by lightening
Haze-SPAN - Sun photometer - a LED and op amp measure the Sun's output & can determine the amount of haze.

Soil Moisture

Personal Weather Web Pages

Atmospheric Optics - Rainbows, etc.
Skywarn - Looking for a weather station? -
Michael L. Dawley - links -
BIT LINE Home Page - software decoders for a number of weather & other formats
Richard H. Brockmeier - Weather Log software

Global Weather Cells(Atmospheric Circulation: Wiki)

". . . . The atmosphere and the earth are part of the same system and rotate together, so if everything was static there would be no friction between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth.
 
However the atmosphere is a fluid and there is unequal heating between the equator and the poles. The unequal heating causes air density and pressure differences, and the atmosphere develops a circulation. Because the Earth is a rotating sphere the motion of these circulations are deflected to preserve angular momentum. The resulting pattern of atmospheric circulation becomes quite complicated.
 
In the simple case of a non rotating Earth air would rise at the equator and descend at the poles, and at the surface of the Earth there would be a pole to equator ward return flow, that is a northerly wind in the northern hemisphere and a southerly in the southern. This would make a single "cell" of circulation equator to pole in both hemispheres.
 
However as the Earth is rotating, rather than one circulation cell, we have three. The full hemisphere cell mentioned above reaches only to about 30° latitude and is called the Hadley cell (Wiki). The rotation of the Earth affects the cell by deflecting the surface return flow to the west in both hemispheres. These are the NE trades of the northern hemisphere and the SE trades of the southern hemisphere.

The other two circulation cells are the Ferrel (Wiki) and the Polar cell (Wiki). The Ferrel Cell runs in the opposite sense to the direct thermally driven Hadley cell, so the surface winds run the opposite way as well, and are deflected in the opposite way. So in the northern hemisphere in the mid-latitudes the average/predominant wind would be a SW wind. However the Ferrel circulation is much more complicated than this simple picture suggests, and there are flows both north and south, though both are generally from the west."

-------Cheers, Hank Australia Bureau of Meteorology ------------

Information

Peter H. Anderson - Embedded Processor Control - PIC weather
Database on Wind Characteristics - mainly for power generation
National Data Buoy Center -
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory -
WOCE hydrographic data -
Nazi U-boat automated weather forecasting espionage network - WWII

Instruments

TMQ-34 Meteorological Measuring Set -

Heathkit ID-4001

IR Cloud Sensor - The first one used a Peltier device as a generator who's output depended on the difference in temperature between the ground below it and the sky temperature.  The second device is a commercial IR thermometer.

Oregon Scientific BAR122HGLA indoor WWVB clock, barometer, temperature, humidity & THGN321ES outdoor temperature and humidity.
Oregon Scientific BAR122HGLA indoor WWVB clock,
                barometer, temperature, humidity & THGN321ES outdoor
                temperature and humidity. There was a problem getting the indoor unit to synchronize with the new outdoor unit.
The solution is to remove all the batteries and let both units sit for at least 10 minutes, the:
1) install 4 AA batteries in the indoor unit and then press and hold RESET for a few seconds.
2) install a charged AAA battery in the outdoor unit and press and hold RESET for a few seconds.

You can see in photo at left that the indoor unit is showing the temp and humidity of Channel 1 (the remote).

Now to mount the remote outside where it will get some Sun.



Campbell Stokes Sunshine Recorder - Casella CEL - Wiki -

Patents

2027367 System of Determining Meteorological Conditions by Radio

Pitot Tube

 For a 10 MPH wind the pressure difference is only 0.025" of water, a small number to measure, but doable.
The pitot tube will NOT work for flows that are supersonic.
Henri de Pitot (1695-1771)  - Constructed double-tube device to indicate water velocity through differential head
Theory of operation -
Using a U-tuber manometer to measure fluid flow velocity -
Telescoping Pitot Tube -  for HVAC ducts
Calibrate Your Airspeed Indicator - for aircraft Air Speed Indicators (with Excel spreadsheet)

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