KY-57 Transmission Security Device

5810-00-434-3644
Brooke Clarke, N6GCE


KY-57 Photo VRC-64 & KY-57


Background
Description
De-Mil Versions
Operation 
Radios 
Key Loaders
Interface
DC Power
HYP-57
Cables
HYX-57 Wire Line Adapter
Installation Kits
    MT-4626
    MT-6429
Test Sets
Documents
    FOIA
    Field Manuals
    Technical Manuals
    Technical Data
    PS Magazine articles 
    Patents
Theory of Operation
KY-58
KY-57 Trainer 
Product Idea 
Links

Background

The KY57/58/68 Transmission Security Device is designed to protect the transmission of voice or data in the form of audio tones.  For example a FAX transmission can be encrypted using the KY-57.  This is a VINSON family digital voice encryption that replaced the NESTOR voice encryption as used with the KY-38.  It should interoperate with the KYV-2 and SINCGARS.

The KY-57 is being replaced by the KY-99A Miniterm which is very close to the size of the KY-57.  Looks to be a form, fit and function replacement but with a lot of additional capability.

It  can make use of the SAVILLE advanced remote keying (SARK)also called Over The Air Re-keying (Wiki: SAVILLE, NSA Suite A Cryptography, NSA cryptographic algorithms).  This may have come about either because of the need to reduce the logistics problem of securely distributing keys and/or to improve the security of the keys (for example Walker got access to keys in transit). 

Description

The KY-57 is the man portable ground equipment and is only contains the voice encryption function so it needs to be used with a radio or wire line.

Note that the classical KY-57 uses a digital data stream at 16 k bits per second and so needs  what's called a wide band radio channel.  This is why military radios have 25 kHz channel spacing whereas commercial plain text radios use a 5 kHz channel spacing.  Because of this need for bandwidth the VINSON system will not work on H.F. radios, only VHF and UHF wideband radios.

The Frequency hopping aspect of radios like the SINCGARS and Have Quick makes it difficult for an enemy to get a bearing on a transmitter, but does not provide secure voice transmission.  That's why these radios either use a KY-57 or KY-58 or have an equivalent function built-in.

The KY-57/58/67 support OTAR, Over The Air Rekeying.  This can be done once the KY-57 has a Key Encryption Key (KEK) loaded in variable slot 6.  The new key variables are transmitted in the clear as Black keys and converted into Red keys by the KEK as they are loaded into the slots.  Note the KEK can not be sent over the air and needs to be loaded locally.

Other Type 1 non inter operable algorithms are BATON, PADSTONE, Fascinator, FIREFLY.  Type 3 algorithms are: DES (OFB, CFB, ECB), Triple DES, AES.

Controls and Indicators

There are no visual indicators, all indications of operation are done by audio tones heard in the handset.

Code Slot Switch

Has 8 positions:
Z1-5 clears the keys from positions 1 through 5, leaving 6
Positions 1 through 6 select the key to be used
Z All - clears all the keys

Mode Switch

Has 4 positions:
P  - Plain
C - Cipher
LD - LoaD Key
RV - Receive or Radio Variable for OTAR
The crypto variable in slot 6 is for this use.

Power Switch

Has 3 positions:
OFF - Off
ON - On
TD  - On with Time Delay for Satellite operations

VOLUME Control

Is a standard rotary knob control.

Connectors

Radio

19 male pin circular military bayonet lock connector for interfacing to a radio.
Pin
Function?
Function?
A
Rx CT in
CT In
B


C
PT in

D


E
Rx Data out

F


G
Gnd

H
Gnd

J


K


L
PT or

M
PT out
CT Out
N
Tx Data in

P


R
DCD

S
PTT

T
Tx Clk

U
Tx CT out

V



FILL

A 6 pin U-229 type connector used to load the keys into the KY-57. Since the KYK-13 can load the keys they probably are 64 bit keys.  Note that there is an export limitation on key size of 40 bits.  So the KY-57 could not be sent to friendly countries without a lot of paper work.  So companies in the Crypto machine business offer alternates to the VINSON system that have a 40 bit key.

Since the KEK can also be loaded by the KYK-13 it too probably is a 64 bit key (128 bit?).

The Red keys in slots 1 thorugh 6 are called Transmission Encryption Keys (TEKs).  The Key Encryption Key goes into slot 6 for Over The Air Rekeying (OTAR).
Best Guess Pin Function Table
For more on this connector see my U-229 Pin Out web page.
Pin Function
A
Ground
B
?
C
Fill Req / Load Ack
D
Data In
E
Clock In
F
?

AUDIO (/Data)

A 6 pin U-229 type connector for an H-250 type handset or other standard military audio accessory.  The KY-57 also supports synchronous data on the AUDIO connector.
Best Guess Function Table
Pin
Function
A
Ground
B
Spkr Out / Rx Data Out
C
PTT
D
Mike In / Clock Out
E
Mode Sel
Gnd=Data, Opn=Voice
F
Tx Data In

Main Battery

The main BA-5590 type battery is connected to the back and housed in a Z-AIJ battery box.

Hold Up Battery (HUB)

There's a cover plate on the bottom that houses the BA-5372 HUB.

De-Mil Versions

May 2009 - American-MilSpec and others are selling empty KY-57 boxes and inside the flex circuit from the front panel has had parts removed.
De-Milled KY-57
            Flex Circuit
The thing to do is come up with what jumpers will allow the box to be cabled into a system, like the GRC-206 or PRC-119.  The simplest case would be jumpers between RAD and AUDIO with nothing else.
It appears that all the flex circuit traces have been cut so removing it from the mother board is probably the cleanest way to go.

Rear DC Power Wiring Table
Mother Board
Wire
Color
Wire
Termination
61
red
S1-top
62
White
S1-center
63
n.c.
na
64
Red
J4-5
65
Black
J4-1 & chassis
66
Black
chassis
67
White
A9-
68
Black
A9+

Operation

The KY-57 can be used in the Plain text mode to allow transmission of clear voice.  Or with the KY-57 turned off you can send plain voice.

Radios

The following radios can use the KY-57:
PRC-119 SINCGARS VHF-FM (only the RT-1439, later radios have the KY-57 built in)
PRC-177 VHF-FM
VRC-12 VHF-FM RT-524/RT-246
VRC-24 VHF-FM
GRC-206 VHF-FM & UHF
PRC-77 VHF-FM (Not the PRC-25)
PRC-113 UHF
PRC-117 VHF-FM
LST-5 UHF
PRC-126 VHF-FM (would require special cable/adapter, used to be KYV-2)
GRC-240 UHF
VRC-83 UHF part of GRC-206, MT-6250
TRC-176 VHF-AM & UHF
PSC-3 UHF
ARC-187 UHF

KY-57 Key Channels

Channels 1 through 5 are for normal Transmission Encryption Keys (TEK) and channel 6 is used for the Key Encryption Key (KEK).
See: TM 11 5820-890-10-03 pg. 101 on Remote Fill (Remote Variable (RV).   The SINCGARS radio FILL connector is cabled to the KY-57 FILL connector.  So the radio is outputting a key from it's FILL connector, but the source of the key is a received data burst, NOT from it's own key storage.

Interface

In a man pack configuration the KY-57 connects directly to the PRC-77 radio.

In a vehicle configuration, like the VRC-12 series, the KY-57 connects to the Junction box that's added to the mount holding either a Receiver-Transmitter or receiver and provides the interface.  These junction boxes contain a number of relays and an audio amplifier, they are not just passive interconnects.  The large mount is the MT-1029.

DC Power

Main Battery

The main battery is a BA-5590 or others in that family.  This is a case with two independent 15 Volt batteries that that the KY-57 connects in series for a nominal 28 VDC.  The KY-57 appears to have been designed with it's front panel height (3") and width (5") chosen based on the size of the connector face of a BA-5590 (2.5 x 4.375").

The Battery box ON241845 NSN 5810-01-048-8167 has a couple of "J" clips that are held by the latches on the KY-57.
The battery box may also be called the Z-AIJ-E1 but it does have NSN 5810-01-048-8167.  The battery could also be a BA-359, or any of the Bx-5590 family.

HYP-57 External Power Adapter  5810-01-026-9621

An alternative way to power the KY-57 is by using a HYP-57/TSEC adapter.  One side of this adapter looks like the top of a BA-5590 and it has the "J" latches so that it can be attached to the bottom of the KY-57.  The other side has an MS3114E-14-5-P connector to allow an external power source to be used for main power.  This would be used for vehicle or fixed installations.

Inside there are a couple of filters installed in series with the red wire between two separate cavities probably for TEMPEST and/or EMP (Wiki) shielding.  Note that with a battery source there is no TEMPEST concern with the DC supply.

HYP_57
                        Label
HYP-57
                        Ext Connector
HYP-57
                        Inside
HYP-57Wiring

J2 MS3114E-14-5-P J1 BA-5590
socket
KY-57
Batt Plug
Description
A = D
5 +

28 V Red wire
B
1 -

Black wire
case ground
n.c.
n.c.
2 -
 =
 4 +
Jumper
The KY-57 battery plug has pins 2 & 4 tied together so the DC voltage powering the KY-57 is 30 Volts for a fresh BA-5590.  This is consistent with the idea of getting power from a military vehicle with a nominal "28 Volt system, which in reality is a 20 to 30 V range.

Note the BA-5590 Discharge test cable SC-D-866543 (2 ft 0 in) can NOT be used to confirm the above wiring.  This cable is wired White to 4 (+), Black to 2 (-) & 6, and has a jumper 1 (-) to 5 (+).  Note the jumper places a short across the above hot connection between battery socket 1 and 5!

Since the KY-57 will run from a BA-5590 it's input voltage range is probably 20 to 30 VDC.  It draws about 170 mA from a 27 VDC source.

The PMD100A is a very similar box, except the DC input power connector (the same as on the HYP-57) is on the side BUT is wired with E as the +24 input and B as the ground.  There is a warning sticker on the PMD100A since someone might use a DC power cable made for the HYP-57 by mistake.  If this was done no damage will occur, it just won't work.

HUB

The original Hold Up Battery was the BA-1372 Mercury battery that's now been replaced by the BA-5372 Lithium battery.
The BA-1372 was made by stacking 5 each "625" Mercury button cells and adding a pointed cap to the Negative end.  1.35 Volts * 5 cells is 6.75 Volts.

This reverse polarity convention has been carried forward to the BA-5372 LiMnO2 Battery, so pay attention to the polarity.

Cables

It seems that all the cables carrying information are made using the conduit type rather than using a conventional cable and connectors.  The conduit cables have a much better shield that meets TEMPEST and EMP requirements that can not be met using a conventional cable.

For other VINSON cables see the USM-481 Cable Tester web page.
Cable
Description
Conn
NSN
CX-12991 KY-57 <-> PRC-77
19F - 14m
5995-01-058-2513
CX-13061
J-3513-J3  to  KY-57 RADIO  VRC-64 U-316 - 14-19S
CX-13062
KY-57 AUDIO  to  J-3513-J1 GC-239 - 8-4P
CX-13063
 J-3513-J2 to HYP-57 Pwr In 
8-3P - 14-5S
CX-13064
 "Y" Cable J3513-J6 to X-mode to RXMT 12-10P - U-316 - GC-329
CX-13065A
J-3513-J6, AM-2060 Set Pwr, PRC-77 power
U-316 - U-316 - U-316
CX-13068
Vehicle 24V power to C-10374 (off-retarans box)
MW10M - 16-26P
CX-13069
HYX-57 <-> J-3513/J-3514
26f - 14m

CX-13071
HYX-57 <-> PRC-77
26f - 26m

CX-13072
KY-57 <-> HYX-57 19f - 26f

CX-13073 KY-57 data input to AUDIO/DATA GC-239 - GC-239
CX-13074
HYX-57 <-> HYX-57 (repeater)
26f - 26f

CX-13075
Audio "Y" cable
Audio-f -2*audio-m

CX-13100
KY-57 to J3513-J6 14-19S - 12-10P
CX-13293
KY-57 <-> RT-1439
55m - 19f - audio

CX-13310 SINCGARS <-> HYX-57 55m - 26f

ON12424
Fill
audio-audio
5810-01-066-7587
566084-809 KY-57 <-> VRC-83
5995-01-224-8698
SM-D-938057 KY-57 <-> C-6709/G Radio Set Control

A3197259
Fill

5995-01-379-9689

CX-12991

CX1291The CX-12991 Connects between the PRC-77 POWER connector and the KY-57 RADIO connector.
NSN 5995-01-058-2513
This is a conduit type cable where there are individual wires inside a hollow tube.
2 feet 6 inches long used in the Man-Pack configuration.



PRC-77
POWER pin 
PRC-77 Function
KY-57 Function
KY-57
RADIO pin
A
Ground
Ground
G
B
 Rx audio (same as AUDIO B)
P.T. Audio In
C
C
 PTT (same as AUDIO C)
PTT Out
S
D
Mic  (same as AUDIO D)
Bal Mike Out
M
E
 +15 power to FUNCTION switch (Ext + 15 VDC in here)
jump to PWR-F
n.c.
F
+15 VDC from battery (Z1 jumper plug connects E & F) 
jump to PWR-E n.c.
H
spare, not used 
PRC-77 uses a
15 V LITE
n.c.
n.c.
J
ground for pin D 
Bal Mike Out
L
K
ReTrans PTT 
n.c.
n.c.
L
  gnd = 150 Hz Tx tone disable

E & T
M
 spare, not used
n.c.
n.c.
N
 +10 VDC reg
n.c.
n.c.
P
 wideband audio out 
Cipher Input
A
R
 wideband audio in 
Cipher Output
D

KY-57 Production Cable

The U-316 (mates with PRC-77 POWER) marked 80045-917545.
The KY-57 connector is marked PT110021-37723.
Uses conventional cable construction, not the conduit type.
It is NOT electrically the same as a CX12991, so probably is a special used for the manufacture of KY-57s.

SM-D-938057

This cable connects the KY-57 to a C-6709/G Radio Set Control for interfacing to a 4 line switchboard. Note this interface is on the AUDIO side of the KY-57, not the crypto side.  This is probably a U-229 to U-229 cable.  The identical cable is used to connect the GRC-193,  MRC-138, PRC-70, PRC-77, PRC-104, VRC-12, VRC-43 -> VRC-49, KY-38, KY-65. Ref TM 11-5820-615-12.

CX-13293

CX-13293 new
                      w/connector protectors CX-13293
                      Connectors
w/net connector protectors
Connectors

This is a special "Y" cable for use with the SINCGARS radios. Instead of just containing wires, it has 3 resistors, a doide and a capacitor.  See wiring diagram in TM 11-5820-890-30-5 Chapter 13 for details.  It serves two functions:
  • Interface between KY-57 and RT-1439
  • If the KY-57 battery is too low to operate the cable disables the radio. 
RT-1439 connector has only 14 pins installed (1, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 34, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 54) the KY-57 19S connector only has 9 sockets installed (A, B, D, E, K, N, S, T, U).  Yet the schematic diagrams for the RT-1439 show major signal paths to J5 pins that have no mating pin in the CX-13293 cable.  This must mean either some other cable & crypto device can be used on the J5 connector and/or the J5 connector is used for testing the RT-1439.  Connections to the J5 connector in the RT-1439 are made using two flexible circuits on the bottom side of the radio, one has 20 conductors marked E28 to E46 and the other one has 22 conductors marked E48 to E69 and the J5 connector has 55 contact positions.
The net type connector protectors used on new cables may be the same as are used on fruit?

566084-809

KY-57 566084-809NSN 5995-01-224-8698  Used between the KY-57 and VRC-83 and/or GRC-240.
The GRC-240 is a VRC-83 and a PLGR GPS receiver.
Interesting in that the far end is a standard U-229 rather than a circular military connector.


KY-57 end marked W2 P1 and the U-229 end marked W2 P2.
Center label: 37695/566064-809,  FPI 56653

This is a 3 Ft 0 In cable and the 566064-808 is a 0 Ft 11 In cable.


U-229
Fill
Data
AUDIO
KY-57
-19S*
Ground
A
L
speaker
B
C & H
PTT
C
S
Mike
D
D

E
T

F
A
* Note the letter "B" is missing on the connector, i.e. A, C, D shown.

A3197259 Fill Cable

A3197259This is another audio to audio fill cable new in the bag.

NSN 5995-01-379-9689









HYX-57 Wire Line Adapter NSN 5810-01-026-9622

HYX-57 Front
HYX-57 Cards
HYX-57 3/4 View
                      with battery Box


HYX-57 FrontThe GRA-39B is a narrow band wire line adapter and the HYX-57 is a wide band wire line adapter.  It has no cryptographic capability, it does pass the encrypted signal.  There are various cables to allow connecting the HYX-57 to various radios on one end of the link and to another radio at the other end of the link or to the KY-57.  A pair can be used to form a telephone with a couple of handsets.  Many possible configurations.

10 mile range between HYX-57 boxes when using 2 pair (quad) cable.

Two HYX-57 units can be connected back to back forming a repeater to increase the wire line range.
Used for point to point communications.  Typically the Receiver Transmitter and it's antenna are located a few clicks from the radio operator.  The big connector has 26 pins whereas the KY-57 has a 19 pin connector.  The mechanical outline of the HYX-57 is identical to the KY-57 and they both can use the same mounts, battery boxes and power supplies.

There is a data rate switch on the HYX-57 which indicates it's working with digital data, not wideband audio data on the wires.
16 k b/s for VINSON, 18 k b/s for NESTOR (KY-38), or 8 k b/s for ?.

These show up on eBay every now and then and some are promoted as being a KY-57 which is not the case.

Manuals Wanted contact Brooke

TM 11-5810-256-10-6
TM 11-5810-256-OP-6
TM 11-5810-256-10-7
TM 11-5810-256-OP-7

HYX-57 Cables

CX-13071

CX13071HYX-57 to PRC-77

This is a conduit cable where there are individual wires inside a hollow tube.






The CX 13071 Connects between the PRC-77 POWER connector and the HYX-57 RADIO connector.
PRC-77
 pin
PRC-77
 Function
HYX-57
 Function
HYX-57
 pin
L
gnd = 150 Hz Tx tone disable
A
C
PTT (same as AUDIO C) PTT Out B
A
Ground
J
P
wideband audio out
wideband audio Input K
B
Rx audio (same as AUDIO B) P.T. Audio In M
R
wideband audio in
wideband audio Output N
K
ReTrans PTT

R
J
ground for pin D
Bal Mike Out Y
D
Mic  (same as AUDIO D) Bal Mike Out Z
E
+15 v to FUNCTION switch jump E to F
n.c.
F
+15 v from battery
jump E to F n.c.

Installation Kits

MK-2146/VRC

Installation kit, electronic equipment MK-2146/VRC (For KY-57 in combination with radio sets AN/VRC-43 OR AN/VRC-46 GENERAL USE ALLOCATION 7FT.)  5810-01-125-1029 INST. KIT MK-2146, 1 EA. B 4/87, PPL 10,049 ISSUE # 1 YA 1388
Contents 5810-01-125-1029 installation kit, elec. equip MK-2146/VRC

MT-4626/URC

MT-4626  5810-01-057-6524

Mounting base, elec. equip



MT-4626 w/KY-57

The KY-57 with the HYP-57 are clamped in the mount.

There is a rectangular hole in the back to allow access to the J2 power connector on the back of the HYP-57.




CX-13061/U (7FT)***5995-01-050-9887 Cable Assembly, Spec Purp Elec.
CX-13062/U (7FT)***5995-01-059-5275 Cable Assembly, Spec Purp Elec.
CX-13063/U (7FT)***5995-01-058-4521 Cable Assembly, Spec Purp Elec.
CX-13064/U (1FT -"Y")***5995-01-043-3872 Cable Assembly, Spec Purp Elec.
Cable Clamping kit, Univ.***5820-01-045-3153
5820-01-044-0533
Interconnection Box J-3153/U OR 5810-01-078-1881 J-3513A/U

HMMWV MK-2827/GRC-240

The AN/GRC-240 HAVE QUICK II ground radio set consists of the AN/VRC-83 vehicle radio and the AN/PSN-11 set. The Receiver/Transmitter is tunable between 116.000 to 149.975 MHz (VHF-AM) and 225.000 to 399.975 MHz (UHF-AM) at 25.0 KHz channel spacing. This spacing provides 1360 VHF and 7000 UHF channels plus one Guard Channel at 243 MHz. This radio set provides a 2, 10 and 30 watt carrier transmitter for normal AM voice and anti-jam frequency hopping communications mode. The radio will accept global positioning system time signal per ICD-GPS-060. The Precision Lightweight Global Positioning Receiver, AN/PSN-11, will be mounted in the dash board area on the passenger side of the vehicle. When operated with the KY-57, it can provide a COMSEC mode. The AN/VRC-83(V)3 and the KY-57 will be mounted in the HMMWV behind the driver. The installation kit is designated the MK-2827/GRC-240. The  total system weight is 78.0 pounds.

SINCGARS MK-2499

When the RT-1439 is used with the KY-57 the installation kit is the MK-2499 and uses the MT-6429.

MT-6429

Front
                          MK-6429
Back MT-6429


The MT-6429 probably was made to hold other equipment (LST-5(), HYX-57, etc?) that uses the same case dimensions in addition to the KY-57.  Like the PRC-25, PRC-77, TS-2963 and many other items use the same case size that's related to the BA-4386 battery and CY-2562/PRC-25 battery box, the KY-57 was designed to be used with a BA-5590 battery.  It has 3 dogs to restrain the front panel whereas the MT-4626 (above) only uses one dog on the bottom center.

The rear of the MT-6429 has a box that looks like the HYP-57 Vehicle Power Adapter from the KY-57 end, but on the back has both a male (J1) and female (J2) 4 terminal military vehicle power connector.  Because it uses the standard military vehicle 4 pin power connectors it may NOT meet the TEMPEST requirements needed for the KY-57.  The HYP-57 and CX-130663 going to a J-Box should meet the TEMPEST requirements.

SB 11-700  Installation Kits for KY-57 (ETM "B" list)
PIN TM/EM Number Current Change Publication Title (partial)
037985  TM 11-5810-312-34&P    TM 11-5810-312-34&P Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 
051621  TM 11-5810-312-12-1    TM 11-5810-312-12-1 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 1 
051764  TM 11-5810-312-12-2    TM 11-5810-312-12-2 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC-KY-57, Vol 2 (Install Kits Whld Vehs) 
052322  TM 11-5810-312-12-3    TM 11-5810-312-12-3 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 3 (Install Kits Trkd Vehs) 
053083  TM 11-5810-312-12-4    TM 11-5810-312-12-4 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 4 (Install Kits General Purpose Use And Shelter Applications) 

PRC-77 & KY-57

Man-Pack

In a man-pack system the KY-57 is carried below the PRC-77 on the LC-2 ALICE pack frame.  Interconnected by the CX-12991 cable.  The KY-57 would be powered from a BA-5590 or equivalent battery.

When used in a manpack configuration with the PRC-77 both units are mounted on an A.L.I.C.E. (All Purpose Individual Carrying Equipment) frame using two equipment shelves.
The ALICE equipment:
  • Frame w/Belt & Shoulder straps NSN 8465-01-019-9103
  • LC-2 Frame w/ straps NSN 8465 01 073 8326 Government only orders here

  • 2 each LC-2 Shelves
  • LC-2 Kidney Pad
  • LC-2 Shoulder Strap Left NSN 8465-00-269-0482
  • LC-2 Shoulder Strap Right NSN 8465-01-078-9282

Vehicular

A vehicular system that would start as a VRC-64 or GRC-160 then the J-3523 Junction box is added with a CX-13063 DC power cable connecting to the HYP-57 External Power Adapter instead of a battery for the KY-57.  The MT-4625 holds the KY-57 near the PRC-77.  The CX-13071 which is 4 Ft. 0 In. long, is probably the one for this configuration.

PS magazine issue 488 on page 45 is in error when it says that the CX-13071 is the GRC-160/64 cable, it's really the cable for use with the HYX-57 Wire Line Adapter and will not fit the KY-57.

Test Sets

ST-43 KY-57 Back to Back Test Set
ST-44 KY-58 Back to Back Test Set
ST-58 Automatic Test Equipment with Z-APA VINSON test adapter
USM-481 VINSON Interconnect Test Set
F91120 - Bit Error Rate Tester

Documents

FOIA

NSTISSI No. 3011 Operational Security Doctrine KY-57/58, KY-67 and KYV-2/2A, 13 October 1989 (Released by NSA on 27-May-2004 pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act Case #: 18269) (I submitted 2 Oct. 2000)
The document has been sanitized and all the figures at the end have been removed.

Signal Bulletins

SB 11-700 Installation Kits for KY-57

Field Manuals

FM 8-10-6
FM 11-1 Talk II SINCGARS - Chapter 1 Equip & Ops -
FM 11-32 Chapt 9 - Info on HYX-57 use.
H-250 <U-229> KY-57 <CX-13072> HYX-57 <wire lin> HYX-57 -Radio
The HYX-57 just transfers the ciphered voice signal, it does no encrypting itself.
FM 24-18 App F - "NRI systems can be secured through the use of the Vinson secure equipment. (Secure wire line with KY-57s and HYX-57s.) Wire-line Adapter HYX-57 provides the interface for the KY-57 to a standard 2- or 4-wire transmission line, but it does not encrypt or decrypt. This is done by the KY-57. Distance between HYX-57s should be no greater than 16 kilometers (10 miles). If a secure wire line is required over a distance greater than 16 kilometers (10 miles), two HYX-57s can be placed back-to-back to double the range."
FM 11-32 Appendix Suggested SOP for SINCGARS -
FM 11-32 Chapt 5 - The VINSON secure device has six preset positions-- five for the TEK and one for a key encryption key (KEK). The five TEK positions allow operation in five different secure networks. The KEK allows changing or updating the TEK through over-the-air (by radio transmission) fill.
FM 11-43 The Signal Leader's Guide - Key load procedure
FM 11-55 Apendix C Communications Security Operations KEK and TEK keys used with KY-57
FM 24-12 Coms in a "Come as you are" War -
FM 24-18 Apendix L TACTICAL SINGLE-CHANNEL SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
FM 24-19 Chapter 4 has instructions on using the KY-57 in manpack configurations.  Using the KOI-18 paper tape reader for key fill.  KYK-13 ( looks very similar to the MX-18290 for key fill.
FM 24-24

Technical Manuals

All the TMs relating to the KY-57 are restricted access, in the "B" directory.
TM 11-5810-256-xx are the manuals relating to the KY-57.
The 256-OP-x series are 4" x 5.5" operation manuals specific to an application.
TM 9 2370-280-24P ?

KY-57

SB 11-700 INSTALLATION KITS FOR KY-57
TB 11-5810-256-14 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57
TM 11-5810-256-10-1 Net Controller Operating COMSEC Equip, KY-57
TM 11-5810-256-10-2 COMSEC Equip, KY-57 Manpack Config
TM 11-5810-256-12 COMSEC Equip, KY-57
TM 11-5810-256-30 COMSEC Equip, KY-57
TM 11-5810-256-OP-3  COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 In Wheeled Vehicles
TM 11-5810-256-OP-4 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 In Tracked Vehicles
TM 11-5810-256-OP-5 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 Retransmission
TM 11-5810-256-OP-6 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 With HYX-57/TSEC FM Secure Remote Comms
TM 11-5810-256-OP-7 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57 With HYX-57/TSEC To Provide Point-To-Point Comms

TM 11-5810-312-34&P Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57
TM 11-5810-312-12-1 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 1
TM 11-5810-312-12-2 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC-KY-57, Vol 2 (Install Kits Whld Vehs)
TM 11-5810-312-12-3 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 3 (Install Kits Trkd Vehs)
Nov 15, 1982 no change
Supports radio sets:
VRC-12, -44, -45, -46, -47, -48, -49, -64
GRC-160
Supported vehicles:
M0A1, A3
M88A1
M113A1
M577A1
M578
M1
M2
M3
LVTC7A1
LVTR7A1
MLRS (SPLL)
TM 11-5810-312-12-4 Install Kits COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 4 (Install Kits General Purpose Use And Shelter Applications)
TM 11-5810-343-12&P-1 COMSEC Equip, KY-57, (Gen Installation Kit Info And Detailed Instructions)
TM 11-5810-343-12&P-2 Installation Kits, COMSEC Equip, KY-57 (Wheeled Vehicles) (COMSEC - for title see PAM 25-35)
TM 11-5810-343-12&P-3 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, (Installation Kits Tracked Vehicles)
TM 11-5810-343-12&P-4 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57, Vol 4 (Installation Kits Shelter Applications)
TM 11-5810-343-34&P COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-57
TM 11-5810-256-34P Communications Security Equipment KY-57 (NSN 5810-00434-3644)

KY-58


KY-58
KY-58


TM 11-5810-262-10 Speech Security Equip, KY-58
TM 11-5810-262-12 TSEC/KY-58
TM 11-5810-262-23 COMSEC Equip, TSEC/KY-58, Z-AHP, Z-AHQ
TM 11-5810-262-34P COMMUNICATIONS SPEECH SECURITY EQUIPMENT KY-58 (NSN 5810-00-449-0184) IDN 430880 PIN 037940

KOI-18

TM 11-5810-292-13&P General Purpose Tape Reader, KOI-18; Elect Transfer Device, KYK-13; Net Control Device, KYX-15/15A
TM 11-5810-292-OP Comm Sec Equip TSEC/KY-57 (?58?)

Technical Data

NTISS/NSTISS Instructions no. 3011 Operational Security Doctrine for KY-57/58,KY-67 & KYV-2/2A (U) classified FOUO 13 Oct. '89
MCO 2040.9 ST-59 Automatic Test Equipment, TM 11-5810-369-13&P, SAM-151 ST-58 Limited Maintenance Manual, SAM-150 ST-58 Theory and Full Maintenance Manual
NITFS Baseline Documents - JIEO 9137 Technical Interface Specification, National Imagery Transmission Format Standard, Tactical Communications Protocol (TACO2) to KY-57/58 Cryptographic Devices.
CSESD‑14G July 1984 Communications Security Equipment, System, Document for TSEC/KY‑57/58 (CONFIDENTIAL)
Fed-STD-1023 - data rates 8, 12 & 16 k bits per second
UNIT LEVEL COMMUNICATIONS MAINTAINER MOS 31V SKILL LEVEL 1 -
TM 11-5810-312-12-1
Special purpose bypass cable CX-13100/U

15.  TSEC/KY-57 INPUT POWER CIRCUIT.

    a.  Situation 7. When performing EPC step 40 (TSEC/KY-57 Input Power), the KY-57 power switch is turned to ON. The A-RT call lamp does not light and alarm beeps are not heard in the handset at J5. This symptom may be caused by no power to the KY-57. To confirm power, measure voltage 5.2 volts DC at the KY-57 (turned on) audio connector pin A to pin C (If KY-57 is turned OFF voltage measured at the audio connector pin A to C will be 30 volts DC). If no voltage is measured, the KY-57 input power circuit is bad. Tracing the KY-57 input power circuit identifies the following possible bad items of equipment: J-3513/U, CX-13061/U, CX-13063/U, HYP-57, and KY-57 (Figure 51).

Note:
When the KY-57 power switch is in the OFF position the handset connected to the KY-57 ADUIO connector is passed through to the RADIO handset connedtions so the A (gnd) to C (PTT) voltage will depend on the radios's PT bias.

When the KY-57 power switch is in the ON or TD positions the PTT bias comes from the KY-57 which needs BOTH the main power source AND a good HUB.

MCO 1510.118 - MOS 0600, Basic Communications Information Systems Marine
SS0728 - System Troubleshooting the Intercommunication Set AN/VIC-1(V) wiht Medium Power FM Radio and COMSEC Equipment (VINSON)
MCO 2231.1 Over-The-Air Rekeying (OTAR) Policy and Procedures

TB 380-40  (Classified) Key Variable Management and Crpytosetting for Electronically Keyed COMSEC Systems (U)

PS Magazine

1995 Issue 512 page 43
"Get the Right Cable"
Again an article with typos.  The CX-13071/U is said to not connect to the PRC-77, but it was designed to and works fine.
Then it says not to connect a CX-13061/U cable to a PRC-77.
1995 Issue 511 page 35
"Dumbells Save Dollars"
By cutting the dust cover for a PRC-25 or PRC-77 (NSN 5340-00-973-1732) in half you spend about 50 cents each instead of the $7.86 for the "proper one".

1995 Issue 510 page 43
"Tighten Your Collar"
the CX-12991 collar comes loose and can damage wires.  Keep it tight.
(BC) Maybe a drop of Locktite would be good?

1993 Issue 488 page 45
"Grab the Right Cable"
Article is in error.  It says that the GRC-160/64 cable is the CX-13071, but that cable is for the HYX-57 Wire Line Adapter and not the GRC-160/64.  What is the correct GRC-160/64 cable?
"Piece Parts Guide"
Battery BA-3590 -> may be a type for BA-5590
Battery Box -> Z-AIJ  NSN 5810-01-048-8167
Knob, Fill slot & Power -> NSN 5355-01-059-1701
Knob, Volume -> NSN 5355-01-055-6230
Spline wrench -> NSN 5120-00-293-0195
Dust Cover, Radio connector -> NSN 5810-01-054-6833
Dust cover, fill and audio connectors -> 5810-01-054-6829

1990 Issue 451 page 45
"Fill Cables Saves Connectors"
Use fill cable NSN 5810-01-066-7587, every time you connect your fill devices, such as a KYX-15/15A, KYK-13 or KOI-18, to one another or to any COMSEC equipment.  If you try to make a direct hookup between two fill devices, or between the COMSEC equipment and a fill device, you can bend or break pins in the connectors.  Then you won't be able to encrypt or decrypt you message.

Don't spit to lubricate the O-rings.
1990 Issue 451 page 42 & 43
"Strap'em Into LC-2 Frame"
Using 2 Cargo Shelfs (NSN 8465-00-001-6476) and 4 Cargo tiedown straps (NSN-00-001-6477) (2 straps for the PRC-77 and 2 straps for the KY-57) on the LC-2 pack frame (NSN 8465-01-073-8326)
B.C. Note: Using the LC-2 A.L.I.C.E. pack frame is probably an improvement on the ST-138 that put all the radio weight on you shoulders.  The pack frame can be adjusted to put most of the weight on your hips.

Patents

5428686 : Secure communication system having long-term keying variable,  Carl D. Brown, Robert T. Kearns, Joseph A. Kersey (NSA), filed:  Sep 28, 1981, issued Jun 27, 1995 ,380/46; 380/44 - 14 year delay in issuing patent.
NSA patent about mixing a key held in the scrambler with a key sent over the air.
This is the idea for Black keys that can be used for Over The Air Re-keying (OTAR) and presented as an addition to DES (Fig 3 in this patent).
The implication is that the KY-57 works in a manner similar to or the same as DES.
The KY-57 was introduced in the early 1980s and the application date is 1981.  The KY-57 was made up to 1993.  Newer boxes implement the exact protocol.  Typically the KY-57 function is embedded into other related equipment, like the SINCGARS radios.
"A secure communication apparatus incorporates a long term, non-extractable master key variable which is held in common by all terminals. A pseudorandom bit sequence generator within the transmitter provides a binary bit stream which is transmitted unencrypted to the intended receiver. Both terminals simultaneously mix the master variable with the transmitted pseudorandom bit stream in an identical manner to create a common separate working variable which is subsequently used for data encryption and decryption."

4182933 Secure communication system with remote key setting, Howard E. Rosenblum (U.S. Army), filed: Feb 14, 1969, issued: Jan 8, 1980, 179/15R; 178/22 -
11 year issue delay.  Seems to be aimed at removing the weakness of prior art systems that were vulnerable to spying.  no patents are referenced.

4494107 Digital to analog converter, Robert W. Kearns, James G. H. Quan, Jan 15, 1985, 341/145 ; 330/69 - maybe related to voice to digital since by one of the inventors of OTAR.

Theory of Operation

The plain text voice signal is first digitized using the Continuously Variable Slope Delta (CVSD) method to change an analog voice into a digital signal.  Then this digital signal is mixed with another digital data stream that comes from the selected key (1 through 6).

At the start of each transmission the KY-57 generates three simultaneous audio tones (1075, 2155 & 3225 Hz) as part of the synchronization process.

KY-58

The KY-58 is the aircraft version of the KY-57.  Some photos from eBay.
Cockpit Control
Zeroize switch under red cover
DELAY on-off
SW: C/RAD 1, PLAIN, C/RAD 2
Sw: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Sw: Mode OP, LD, RV
Sw: PWR, ON
Front
Sw: P, C, LO, PV
Sw:Fill 1-5, Z, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Z All
Volume Control
OFF, ON, TD
Fill connector
Label Spaces for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and Bat Inst
3/4 Front Side View

Rear

J1 male circular connector
J2 male circular connector
J3 6-pin AUDIO/FILL connector
J100 Huge "D" type connector 4 rows x 30+ pins/row

KY-57 Trainer

KY-57 Training
            Replica
The trainer seems to have connectors to allow cabling in into a system but only has the Volume and Time Delay knobs (the latter knob is missing from it's shaft in the above photo).
The Fill connector is NOT present so key loading could not be practiced.  That's too bad since there have been porblems associated with what method is used to connect the key loader to the KY-57.

Does anyone know if this unit has any electrical internal parts or is it just to allow connecting the cables?  Let me Know

Product Idea

A replica KY-57 could be built that would be the same size and have the same connectors so could be cabled into a radio system. 

One version would be a single box the same size as the KY-57 with the HYP-57 attached and with real connectors for the KY-57 RADio and AUDIO ports and for the HYP-57 power input port, but empty inside.  It would fit the MT-4626 mount or would be strapped onto an LC-2 frame with a PRC-77.  It could be cabled into any of the VRC-12 series vehicular radio systems.

Another version would have no crypto capability, but might have a codec to convert voice to a digital data stream, similar to what's done in the TA-1042 telephone.  This might be done using the CMX639 (or CMX649) codec chip.

If interested please let me know.

Links

Monitoring Utility Stations - Voice encryption systems, VOCODERS - Sounds of various systems
F. W. Chesson - COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY and Related EQUIPMENT -
Crypto Equipment Guide -
WINDSTER STANDARD EMBEDDABLE MODULE

WINDSTER consists of a PC board containing several custom LSIs and discrete devices. This module incorporates the SAVILLE I and PADSTONE algorithms to provide security for classified traffic. It also contains the CORDOBA algorithm which provides security for sensitive unclassified traffic. The CORDOBA provides interoperability with many inventory SAVILLE-based equipment. WINDSTER is a 500 Kbps full/half duplex embeddable COMSEC module used to secure digital voice or data traffic. It provides cryptographic interoperable traffic operation with KY-57/58, E-DRZ, KYV-2, KYV-5, KG-84, RAILMAN, INDICTOR, and STU-III. It also provides re-key operations interoperable with the KY-57/58, KYV-5, INDICTOR, and RAILMAN equipment.

This embeddable module may be used with various voice/data equipment such as mobile or desk top telephones, modems, or man-pack radios. It is approved for use at all classification levels. The authorized vendor is Harris, RF Communications. The approximate cost is $2700 each for quantities of 1 to 249 and $1600 each for quantities over 250.

National Counter Intelligence Executive - foreign economic collection and industrial espionage -
The Michael Kelley Gulf War Collection Finding Aid - Box 18 - Technical Manual, Net Controller Operating Procedures for Communications Security Equipment, (TSEC/KY-57), January 1984
Effects of Tandeming on Voice Quality and Intelligibility - CVSD at 16Kbps - w/ sound sample files
The U.S. Department of Defense Digital Voice Processor Consortium -
Battery Information for COMSEC Equipment -
Bendix Radio Programs over Time -
A lot of Secure Telephone Units -

EKMS (Electronic Key Management System) Army, Navy,

PS Magazine - ALICE LC-2 Pack NSNs -
Warfighters Clothing Support Page -
Harris - Products -Embeddable Security Products - Sierra module -Type 1 - Cryptographic Algorithms: BATON/MEDLEY, SAVILLE/PADSTONE, KEESEE/CRAYON/WALBURN, GOODSPEED, ACCORDION, FIREFLY/Enhanced FIREFLY, JOSEKI Decrypt, plus other types.
FAS - Cryptographic and Security Programs and Systems - TEMPEST -
Digital Modes Samples - you can hear the startup tones on the KY-57 sound bite
Sounds -


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