On web pages for specific night vision devices the patents are overlapping. So I'm going to put consolidate them on this page.
There are a number of ways to see better in low light conditions. So the equipment will be grouped in that way. They are:
1. Optical Aids such as binoculars where the exit pupil is matches to a night adapted eye, i.e. about 5 mm.
2. Electro-Optical visible light enhancement devices
3. Near infrared to visible light devices
4. Far infrared to visible light devices
Class 313: Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices/
524: With Optical device
525: Photosensitive Having a phosphor screen
529 Photosensitie with Control electrode
Class 250 Radiant Energy
1936514 Discharge tube, Tomas C Lengnick, Philadelphia, PA, app: 1928-11-21, 250/332; 313/329; 250/214LA; 250/214.1; 367/7; 102/418; 250/333; 313/524; 348/164 - This is the key to night vision devices! Oldest patent in class 250/333.
The Wiki page for Night Vision Device History says "Hungarian physicist Kálmán Tihanyi invented an infrared-sensitive electronic television camera for anti-aircraft defense in the UK". He filed an application for a "Radioskop" in 1926 but this was for a television device.
His UK patent 352,035 with application date of Dec 21, 1929 came about a year after the "Discharge Tube" patent. Also this is a patent for guiding and uses 4 or 5 "cells" where each cell is a pixel. That's to say this patent does not cover a device that displays an image that can be seen by an eye.
2131185 Electro Optical Device, M. Knoll (Telefunken), Sep 27 1938, 250/214VT ; 313/524; 315/10; 348/164; 348/832- IR amplification
2189321 Electro Optical Device, G.A. Morton , RCA, Feb 6 1940, 313/529 ; 250/333; 315/213 - visible light amplifier only?
2490740 Image Tube, F.H. Nicoll (RCA), Dec 6 1949 (filed Sep 6 1946), 313/526 ; 250/333; 250/368; 313/146; 313/249; 313/286; 348/164; 348/335; 445/14 -
One Electron Tube 1P25A
JAN 1225AMfr. Capehart Farnsworth Corp.
Contract No. DA-11-164-ENG-+190
One Electron Tube
Processed for Export
Manufacturer Part No. Description Qty
919 D5637 7 6 Tube 1 ea
Columbus A.S.F. Depot Engineer Section Columbus, O.
2692341 Electron-Optical Image Converter, Schagen Pieter, Bruining Hajo (Hartforn National Bank), Oct 19 1954, 250/214VT ; 313/541
Single accelerating voltage, not multiple anodes, hemispherical input -2739244 Infrared Sensitive Tube, E.E. Sheldon, Mar 20 1956, 250/214VT ; 250/330; 252/301.6R; 313/380 -
Instead of using an input optical system like the prior art tubes this one has about 1,000 times gain inside the tube.2903596 Image Transducers, W.O. Reed, Sep 8 1959, 250/214VT ; 250/333 - longer than 1.2 micron IR
2946255 Combined day and night viewing device, Combined day and night viewing device, Bolay Errol, Siemens, app: 1955-06-02, -
2994798 High Voltage Image Tube, G.L. Krieger, George A Morton, (Army), Aug 1 1961 (filed Dec 26 1946), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 252/301.6S -
Four accelerating anodes at up to 16 kV, maybe M3 Sinper-Scope, very similar to the 1P25.
3280356 Image tube with truncated conical anode and a plurality of coaxial shield electrodes, Richard G Stoudenheimer, Joseph C Moor, RCA, Oct 18 1966 (filed: Jul 17, 1958), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 313/107; 313/530 -
Image tube with truncated conical anode and a plurality of coaxial shield electrodes,Moor Joseph C, Stoudenheimer Richard G, Rca Corp, filed: Jul 17, 1958, Pub: Oct 18, 1966, 313/529, 313/107, 250/214.0VT, 313/530 - 10,000 Volts, 2.95" long, 1.88" dia.? model?
Hemispherical input at ground, one other potential of 16 k, flat output window. very much like the 6929 tube in the PAS-6
2535708 X-Ray Generator
2666864 Image Intensifier Tube, R.L. Longini (Westinghouse), Jan 1954, 313/527 ; 250/214VT; 313/107; 427/107; 427/109; 427/122; 427/124; 427/64; 427/74; 445/11; 445/12 -
Hemispherical input, but output is a much smaller flat screen2686885 Insulated Coated Grid for Electron Discharge Devices, Bailin (Sylvania) - tetrode power tube
2555545 Image Intensifier, Hunter (Westinghouse), Jun 1951 - designed for X-Rays
2752519 Method and Apparatus for use in Chemical Evaporation Process, Ruedy (Navy), -
method of making image converter tube like the 25060182774002 Image Tube, D.R. Carlo (International Telephone and Telegraph, aka ITT), Dec 11 1956, -
Hemispherical input, flat smaller output, 2.3 kV& 16 kV to tube2834889 Electronic Camera, Fries, May 13 1958, - image amplification then to film
2839601Visualize Electric & Magnetic Fields
2851625 Image Tube, Ruedy (RCA), Sep 9 1958 - hemispherical input, multiple anodes, 1,000 times gain
2857589 Adapter Device for Image Tubes, S.G. Fong (International Telephone and Telegraph, aka ITT), Oct 21, 1958, -
Fits on front of tube and contains voltage divider to provide 2.3 kV from 16 kV Sniper-Scope type tube.2928969 Image Device, Schneeberger (Westinghouse), - maybe for TV use
3376421 Quantum Counters, E. Snitzer (American Optical Co), Apr 2 1968, 250/333 ; 385/115 - fiber optic bundle
3415990 Invisible Light Sensor Tube and Faceplate Material R.T. Watson, (ITT), R. Dec 10 1968, 250/338.1 ; 250/214VT; 250/330; 250/363.01; 250/367; 250/484.4; 313/103R - uses UV light to be more sensitive to IR
3454773 Binocular night telescope with single image tube, Henricus Wilhelmus Bulthuis, Abraham Groeneweg (NV Optische), Jul 1969, - Cited By (30) - is designed to operate with infrared light, the image converter comprises a single image conversion tube.
3728545 Infrared imaging apparatus, Honeywell Inc, Apr 17, 1973, 250/334, 348/E03.1 - early mirror scanning, not this device
3737667 Electro-optical viewing device, B Babb, E Byer, G Giffin, R Rife, ITT Corp, 1973-06-05
3744872 BINOCULAR WITH IMPROVED PRISM MOUNT, Akin (Bushnell), Jul 1973, - molded plastic body
4030047 Opto-mechanical subsystem with temperature compensation through isothermal Design, F.E. Goodwin (NASA), - Beryllium
4037132 Image Tube Power Supply, A.W. Hoover, ITT, Jul 19, 1977, - for microchannel plate Image Intensifiers
4041343 Electron Multiplier Mosaic Structrue, R.K. Orthuber (ITT), Aug 9 1977, fiber optic micro channel plate - visible
4131818 Night Vision System, M. Wilder (Varian), Dec 26 1978, 250/214VT ; 250/333; 313/528; 313/534- micro channel plate
4173727 Electron Image Device, J. Vine (Westinghouse), Nov 6, 1979 (filed Jun 23, 1966), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 313/537 -
4205894 Hermetically sealed binoculars, (Bell & Howell) - single objective
4463252 Night vision goggle system, Thomas M. Brennan, Robert M. Burley (Baird Corp), - single objective, two oculars
4658139 Night vision reflex sight, Thomas M. Brennan, W. Michael Glasheen, Baird Corp, 1987-04-14, - to be used with NVG (see 4658139)
4794246 Universal passive night vision system, William A. Kastendieck, Varo Inc, 1988-12-27, - single objective, two oculars
5029963 Replacement device for a driver's viewer, Charles Naselli, Albert F. Tien (ITT), - upgrades the AN/VVS-2 to a Gen III device = MX-9644/UV
Patent Citations (5)5084780 Telescopic sight for day/night viewing, (ITT), - rifle scope, single objective, single eyepiece, two internal paths
Cited By (45)
7880962 Optical and infrared periscope with display monitor, Robert Tartaglia, Seiler Instrument And Manf, 2011-02-01, - uses TV instead of direct optical system. Conversion kit for VVS-2.
Ref 1. TM 8000-10/1D Principal Technical Characteristics of U.S. Marine Corps Ordnance Equipment, April 2010, Ch4 Optical & Misc. Equipment (Army manuals)
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