On web pages for specific night vision devices the patents are overlapping. So I'm going to put consolidate them on this page.
There are a number of ways to see better in low light conditions. So the equipment will be grouped in that way. They are:
1. Optical Aids such as binoculars where the exit pupil is matches to a night adapted eye, i.e. about 5 mm.
2. Electro-Optical visible light enhancement devices
3. Near infrared to visible light devices
4. Far infrared to visible light devices
Class 313: Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices/
524: With Optical device
525: Photosensitive Having a phosphor screen
529 Photosensitie with Control electrode
Class 250 Radiant Energy
1936514 Discharge tube, Tomas C Lengnick, Philadelphia, PA, app: 1928-11-21, 250/332; 313/329; 250/214LA; 250/214.1; 367/7; 102/418; 250/333; 313/524; 348/164 - This is the key to night vision devices! Oldest patent in class 250/333.
The Wiki page for Night Vision Device History says "Hungarian physicist Kálmán Tihanyi invented an infrared-sensitive electronic television camera for anti-aircraft defense in the UK". He filed an application for a "Radioskop" in 1926 but this was for a television device.
His UK patent 352,035 with application date of Dec 21, 1929 came about a year after the "Discharge Tube" patent. Also this is a patent for guiding and uses 4 or 5 "cells" where each cell is a pixel. That's to say this patent does not cover a device that displays an image that can be seen by an eye.
2131185 Electro Optical Device, M. Knoll (Telefunken), Sep 27 1938, 250/214VT ; 313/524; 315/10; 348/164; 348/832- IR amplification
2189321 Electro Optical Device, G.A. Morton , RCA, Feb 6 1940, 313/529 ; 250/333; 315/213 - visible light amplifier only?
2490740 Image Tube, F.H. Nicoll (RCA), Dec 6 1949 (filed Sep 6 1946), 313/526 ; 250/333; 250/368; 313/146; 313/249; 313/286; 348/164; 348/335; 445/14 -
One Electron Tube 1P25A
JAN 1225AMfr. Capehart Farnsworth Corp.
Contract No. DA-11-164-ENG-+190
One Electron Tube
Processed for Export
Manufacturer Part No. Description Qty
919 D5637 7 6 Tube 1 ea
Columbus A.S.F. Depot Engineer Section Columbus, O.
2692341 Electron-Optical Image Converter, Schagen Pieter, Bruining Hajo (Hartforn National Bank), Oct 19 1954, 250/214VT ; 313/541
Single accelerating voltage, not multiple anodes, hemispherical input -2739244 Infrared Sensitive Tube, E.E. Sheldon, Mar 20 1956, 250/214VT ; 250/330; 252/301.6R; 313/380 -
Instead of using an input optical system like the prior art tubes this one has about 1,000 times gain inside the tube.2903596 Image Transducers, W.O. Reed, Sep 8 1959, 250/214VT ; 250/333 - longer than 1.2 micron IR
2946255 Combined day and night viewing device, Combined day and night viewing device, Bolay Errol, Siemens, app: 1955-06-02, -
2994798 High Voltage Image Tube, G.L. Krieger, George A Morton, (Army), Aug 1 1961 (filed Dec 26 1946), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 252/301.6S -
Four accelerating anodes at up to 16 kV, maybe M3 Sinper-Scope, very similar to the 1P25.
3280356 Image tube with truncated conical anode and a plurality of coaxial shield electrodes, Richard G Stoudenheimer, Joseph C Moor, RCA, Oct 18 1966 (filed: Jul 17, 1958), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 313/107; 313/530 -
Image tube with truncated conical anode and a plurality of coaxial shield electrodes,Moor Joseph C, Stoudenheimer Richard G, Rca Corp, filed: Jul 17, 1958, Pub: Oct 18, 1966, 313/529, 313/107, 250/214.0VT, 313/530 - 10,000 Volts, 2.95" long, 1.88" dia.? model?
Hemispherical input at ground, one other potential of 16 k, flat output window. very much like the 6929 tube in the PAS-6
2535708 X-Ray Generator
2666864 Image Intensifier Tube, R.L. Longini (Westinghouse), Jan 1954, 313/527 ; 250/214VT; 313/107; 427/107; 427/109; 427/122; 427/124; 427/64; 427/74; 445/11; 445/12 -
Hemispherical input, but output is a much smaller flat screen2686885 Insulated Coated Grid for Electron Discharge Devices, Bailin (Sylvania) - tetrode power tube
2555545 Image Intensifier, Hunter (Westinghouse), Jun 1951 - designed for X-Rays
2752519 Method and Apparatus for use in Chemical Evaporation Process, Ruedy (Navy), -
method of making image converter tube like the 25060182774002 Image Tube, D.R. Carlo (International Telephone and Telegraph, aka ITT), Dec 11 1956, -
Hemispherical input, flat smaller output, 2.3 kV& 16 kV to tube2834889 Electronic Camera, Fries, May 13 1958, - image amplification then to film
2839601Visualize Electric & Magnetic Fields
2851625 Image Tube, Ruedy (RCA), Sep 9 1958 - hemispherical input, multiple anodes, 1,000 times gain
2857589 Adapter Device for Image Tubes, S.G. Fong (International Telephone and Telegraph, aka ITT), Oct 21, 1958, -
Fits on front of tube and contains voltage divider to provide 2.3 kV from 16 kV Sniper-Scope type tube.2928969 Image Device, Schneeberger (Westinghouse), - maybe for TV use
3376421 Quantum Counters, E. Snitzer (American Optical Co), Apr 2 1968, 250/333 ; 385/115 - fiber optic bundle
3415990 Invisible Light Sensor Tube and Faceplate Material R.T. Watson, (ITT), R. Dec 10 1968, 250/338.1 ; 250/214VT; 250/330; 250/363.01; 250/367; 250/484.4; 313/103R - uses UV light to be more sensitive to IR
3454773 Binocular night telescope with single image tube, Henricus Wilhelmus Bulthuis, Abraham Groeneweg (NV Optische), Jul 1969, - Cited By (30) - is designed to operate with infrared light, the image converter comprises a single image conversion tube.
3728545 Infrared imaging apparatus, Honeywell Inc, Apr 17, 1973, 250/334, 348/E03.1 - early mirror scanning, not this device
3737667 Electro-optical viewing device, B Babb, E Byer, G Giffin, R Rife, ITT Corp, 1973-06-05
3744872 BINOCULAR WITH IMPROVED PRISM MOUNT, Akin (Bushnell), Jul 1973, - molded plastic body
4030047 Opto-mechanical subsystem with temperature compensation through isothermal Design, F.E. Goodwin (NASA), - Beryllium
4037132 Image Tube Power Supply, A.W. Hoover, ITT, Jul 19, 1977, - for microchannel plate Image Intensifiers
4041343 Electron Multiplier Mosaic Structrue, R.K. Orthuber (ITT), Aug 9 1977, fiber optic micro channel plate - visible
4131818 Night Vision System, M. Wilder (Varian), Dec 26 1978, 250/214VT ; 250/333; 313/528; 313/534- micro channel plate
4173727 Electron Image Device, J. Vine (Westinghouse), Nov 6, 1979 (filed Jun 23, 1966), 313/529 ; 250/214VT; 313/537 -
4205894 Hermetically sealed binoculars, (Bell & Howell) - single objective
4463252 Night vision goggle system, Thomas M. Brennan, Robert M. Burley (Baird Corp), - single objective, two oculars
4658139 Night vision reflex sight, Thomas M. Brennan, W. Michael Glasheen, Baird Corp, 1987-04-14, - to be used with NVG (see 4658139)
4794246 Universal passive night vision system, William A. Kastendieck, Varo Inc, 1988-12-27, - single objective, two oculars
5029963 Replacement device for a driver's viewer, Charles Naselli, Albert F. Tien (ITT), - upgrades the AN/VVS-2 to a Gen III device = MX-9644/UV
Patent Citations (5)5084780 Telescopic sight for day/night viewing, (ITT), - rifle scope, single objective, single eyepiece, two internal paths
Cited By (45)
7880962 Optical and infrared periscope with display monitor, Robert Tartaglia, Seiler Instrument And Manf, 2011-02-01, - uses TV instead of direct optical system. Conversion kit for VVS-2.
DigitalPhotography101 Digital Photography 101: The Basics
Digital Photography 201 Stacking Images
Digital Photography 202: Close-Up, Macro & Micro
Digital Photography 203: Color Management
Digital Photography 204: Studio Flash
Digital Photography 205: Astrophotography
Digital Photography 206 Micro Photography
Electro Optical Gadgets
Exotech 100BX Radiometer -
GR Strobotac, Sonar & Krytron
Harold "Doc" Edgerton - Development of strobe flash & Etc.
HP 8702B Lightwave Component Analyzer, Electro Optical Network Analyzer
Hughes Probe Eye far IR viewer
IR Gun Sight
LM631A Amprobe (Meterman) LM631A Digital Light Meter
Laser Guided Missile
M18 M18 IR Binocular
M227 M-227 Signal Lamp Equipment SE-11 - Gun shaped flashlight, trigger, relay, IR Filter option
MD-1 Automatic Astro Compass - also can see stars in the daytime
Optical Spectrum Analyzers
PAS-6 Metascope IR viewer and source
Photoflash - includes Graflex Stroboflash IV
PVS-4 Starlight Scope, Night Vision Sight, Individual Served Weapon
PVS5 NVG PVS-5A Night Vision Goggles
T3C - Russian monocular Image Intensifier (star light scope)
TVS-2 Crew Served Weapon Sight
UAS-4 Infrared Surveillance System
US Navy Infrared IR Signaling Telescope US/C-3
VVS-2 Tank Driver's Night Viewer
Weston Model 594 Photronic Cell & Light Meters
Ref 1. TM 8000-10/1D Principal Technical Characteristics of U.S. Marine Corps Ordnance Equipment, April 2010, Ch4 Optical & Misc. Equipment (Army manuals)
Ref 2. Veritasium: World's Best Night Vision vs World's Darkest Room, 27:15 - Excellent overview of strengths and weakness of the three types of NV devices: Active, Image Intensifier & Thermal IR
PRC68, Alphanumeric Index of Web pages, Contact, Products for Sale
Page Created 2020 March 19