40 mm Grenade

Brooke Clarke 2008

Low Pressure Gas Generation

    Very Pistol
    M-320 GLM
    XM-25 CDTE
    XM307Advanced Crew Served Weapon
    M79 with Stock
    Airsoft M79
    M203 rifle mounted
    Mk19 Pedestal mounted
    M32 revolver
    M26 MASS
    Case Cartridge Practice M212
    Ping Pong Ball Adapter
    Ammo Patents
Individual Integrated Fighting System
Patents, 2737889


This is a low pressure munition.  Unlike high pressure munitions, like a rifle, that need very strong chambers and barrels, low pressure munitions can use thin walled barrels.  The heart of the system is the low pressure gas generator.  These gas generators are also used for things like automobile air bags, life vest inflation, life raft inflation, bolt cutters, grappling hooks, radio antenna launching.  This same system is used to launch mortars.

AAI stands for Aircraft Armaments Incorporated.  The origins of the 40 mm Grenade may be in explosive bolts used in Navy aircraft bomb racks.

China Lake Naval Weapons Center (Wiki) worked on the 40mm pump action 40mm system around 1968 (China Lake Patents - Description) (Wiki).

In the past I had a surplus flare gun that took some impossible to get cartridge so made up an adapter shell.  It took a large pistol primer and fired a Ping Pong ball.  Some padding was needed to keep from burning a hole in the ping pong ball, but then it would shoot the ball over the power lines.  Based on this experience it may be possible to make a tennis ball launcher that could be used to put up wire antennas based on the high-low pressure system except using 22 rim fire blanks.

The current antenna launchers include:
Compressed gas driven tennis ball launchers.  They require a way to get the compressed gas and are more bulky than a cartridge type device.
Bow and Arrow suffers from the problem of doing severe damage when coming down.
Sling Shot and lead weight - has limited height capability.  I have 100+ feet tall pine trees and the sling shot at full extension can not get that high.

Low Pressure Gas Generation

The first generation 40 mm grenade used the very common 0.38" blank pistol cartridge mounted in the base of the 40 mm round.  When the primer is fired gas is generated in the blank cartridge and the pressure builds up (30,000 psi) to the point where the brass case ruptures in places where the chamber in the 40 mm round has holes.  The high pressure gas expands into an empty space lowering the pressure (3,000 psi) which pushes the round out the 40 mm rifled barrel.  This is called the High-Low pressure system.  The high pressure is needed to properly burn the propellant that's commonly used in pistol rounds.
Wiki: High-low system, Project NIBLICK,


In addition to the 40mm grenade launchers listed below there are the spigot-type STANAG type 22mm rifle grenades (Wiki). These are not 40mm, but rather just a different type of grenade.  Most modern military rifles have a flash hider that's made to work with these rifle grenades (Wiki).  There are three types: those that require a blank cartridge, those with a hole all the way through so a regular round can be used, and those that trap a bullet.

Very Pistol (Wiki)

Named after Edward Wilson Very (Wiki) there are two spellings Wiki shows Verey, the patent shows Very. His cartridge looks similar to a shotgun except there's a couple of pyrotechnic balls that ignite as soon as the cartridge is fired and so, like a tracer round, there's light from the muzzle until burnout after reaching maximum altitude.  He patented the signal cartridge (not a pistol) which came to be called the Very Light.

Signal Cartridges were intended to be used like Signal Flags (Wiki) or Morse Code (Wiki) and Aldis lights 1867 (Wiki), that's to send a message. 
In 1846 Henry J Rogers (short bio at: Famous Americans -Mr. Rogers published (visual signaling codes for daytime use?).
In 1859 the Coston colored fires were being used.

An example is in Season 7, Episode 1, Murdoch Ahoy, of the Murdoch Mystery series near the end as a ship is going down.  You see two red balls of light arching up and then down.

The Telegraph - Weapons invented in the heat of the conflict - Flare Pistol - Geophone - they got the flare pistol wrong, it was not invented for illumination or attention getting but instead for sending signals using 1 to 3 red or white shooting stars.

  12528 Breech-loading fire-arm, Eollin White, Mar 13, 1855, oldest patent in class 42/28 - falling block
  15496 breech-loading fire-arm, Gilbebt Smith, Aug 5, 1856, oldent patent in class 42/8 - hinged barrel
  23536 System of Pyrotechnic Night Signals, B.F. Coston, Apr 5, 1859, 102/345; 102/360; 200/81.5 - boxes with red, white & blue fires.
The prior patents set the stage for the Very patent below.

190263 Signal-Cartridge, E. W. Very, May 1, 1877, 102/346 - oldest patent in this class, 300 feet up 8 seconds burn time (starts burning in barrel) -
        oldest in class 102/346 AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES\PYROTECHNICS\Gun-type cartridge
        RE8167 Signal Cartridge, E.W. Very,  April 9, 1878, 102/346; 102/342  (reissue of 190263)

191843 pyrotechnic signal-cartridges, Jacob J. Detwillee, Jun 12, 1877,  102/346 
197339 Signal-cartridge, Henry H. Coston, Nov 20, 1877, 102/346; 102/360 - "Colston telegraphic night signals" successive colors  
breech-loading fire-arms, Chaeles W. Sneldee, Apr 9, 1878, 42/28falling block rifle
216552 pyrotechnic signal cartridges, Adam H. Bogardus, Jun 17, 1879, 102/346 - sub munition with balls inside
Pyrotechnic projectile, Stauth & Wiebach, Nov 7, 1893, 102/335; 124/21; 42/54 - muzzle loaded into rifle     
1306407 Flare-Light Shell, Samuel Cleland Davidson, Jun 10, 1919, 102/342, 102/346 - to light up an area for a minute or more, lands on it's base still burning 
Firearm, Driggs Jr Louis L, Faber Henry B, Oct 26, 1937, 42/40, 102/340, 42/1.15 - removable barrel (part of flare) pistol.
2351268 Signal pistol, Molins Machine Co Ltd Patrick Jackson Donald Richard, Jun 13, 1944, 42/41, 42/1.15, 42/71.2, 42/44, 42/70.8 - connects to aircraft port
2360168 Flare pistol, Glen R Severance, Frederick K Comiskey, Hilten E Jones, Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co, Oct 10, 1944,  42/46, 42/1.15 - AN-M8 shoots British AND  American flares.
3168788 Signal Pistol, Feb 9, 1965,
42/1.15, 42/69.1, 42/41 - cheap to make uses pins & coil springs rather than conventional shaped trigger, sear, &Etc.
 6257146 Noise making projectile, Christopher P. Stonebraker, Stoneco, Inc., Jul 10, 2001, 102/346, 102/360, 102/502, 102/513, 102/503, 102/501 - whistles then explodes to scare game

AN-M8 Flare Pistol

Can fire both flanged "American" shells as well as grooved "British" shells.

2347645 Flare pistol, John M Sherrer, Glen R Severance, Ephraim S Huntington, Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co, May  2, 1944, 42/69.1, 42/44
2360168 Flare pistol, Glen R Severance, Frederick K Comiskey, Hilten E Jones, Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co, Oct 10, 1944, 42/46, 42/1.15 
2363203 Flare pistol, John M Sherrer, Glen R Severance, Ephraim S Huntington, Eureka Vacuum Cleaner Co, Nov 21, 1944, 42/69.1

Flare (Very) Pistol references

Lieutenant Very's Pistol by F.H. Baer
German Flare Pistols and Signal Ammunition by Dr. Lorenz Scheit - YouTube book review - publisher: Simpson Ltd - Standard Ed, Leather Bound Ed

Notes on Signal and Illuminating Devices and the Apparatus for Projecting Them, from the French Edition of 1917, Translated and edited at the Army War College, May 1917. - mentions 25 & 35mm flares

M-320 Grenade Launcher Module (GLM)

To replace the M-203.   Wiki - Flickr - Army - July 3, 2009 starting to be deployed

M203 Gernade

XM-25 Counter Defilade Target Engagement System (CDTE)

XM-25 Counter
          Defilade Target Engagement System (CDTE)

This is different from the XM25 7.62x51 NATO sniper rifle.  The XM-25 fires a 25mm round and utilities a lot of electronics and optical systems.
I wonder if the XM-25 uses a similar low pressure propulsion system?
This may or may not become a fielded weapon.
PEO Soldier unveils lighter, more lethal weapons systems -
ATK -Individual Airburst Weapon System (IAWS) -
XM-25 Is Readied For Prime Time -
defense Tech - Starship Troopers Meets G.I. Joe -

XM307Advanced Crew Served Weapon

XM307 Advanced Crew Served Weapon

Wiki - Fires the 25mm smart round like the XM-25 above.
Intended to replace the MK 19 40mm (see below) and the 0.50 HB heavy machine gun.

M79 Rifle Stock shoulder fired single shot

M-79 Gernade
Wiki - says named the M79 in Dec. 1960, but the development was earlier.  Note 14-1/2" barrel vs. the M203 (Wiki) with a 12" barrel, so the M79 has slightly longer range.
TM 9-1010-10 40 mm Grenade Launcher M79, Feb 1985 (change 4)
Bore Brush
M79 40 mm
              bore brush
M79 40 mm
              Screwdriver and combination tool w/brush NSN:
Fiberglass Stock
40mm M79
              Fiberglass Stock
Mounting screw is 5/16"-18

King Arms M79 Airsoft

Got this after seeing the H4855U radio that looks real in almost all aspects.  And this appears just like I would imagine a real M79 looks.  Parts may even interchange.
Air Soft M79 40 mm gernade launcher.

Air Soft M79 40 mm gernade launcher
Air Soft 40 mm round
Tip is the inlet valve to pressurize the round.
Air Soft M79 40 mm gernade launcher

Air Soft M79 40 mm gernade launcher
Stock mounting screw is 8mm-1.25mm (not interchangeable with real M79 stock)

2968870 Sighting device for rifle grenades and the like, William Brandt Edgar, Energa, Jan 24, 1961 - for use on rifle grenades, not 40mm.

M203 Fits under M16 barrel, single shot

M-203 Gernade
      Launcher (loading)
Wiki - Note 12" barrel
M203 40mm Gernade
                Launcher Sight M203 40mm Gernade
                Launcher Sight

Mk19 Pedestal mounted automatic

Mk19 Gernade
TM 9-1010-230-10 MACHINE GUN, 40-MM, MK19, MOD 3
TM 9-1010-230-23&P MACHINE GUN, 40-MM, MK19 MOD 3

M32 Multiple Grenade Launcher (MGL) "Six Pack Attack"

Wiki - Milkor - MGL Mk 1L (L for Long chamber) - MEI - ammo - Helhound (400m) - Mercury (800m) - Huntir (camera)
M-32 Multiple Gernade
The radio at the lower left looks like the Bowman.  LEMO connector in front with cable to headset and stubby antenna in background

In this photo you can see the use of the rail mounting system on four sides of the forearm.
Picatinny rail (Wiki) = MIL-STD-1913 = STANAG 2324
Although first used just for mounting scopes it's now used as a general purpose mounting system.

M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System MASS (Wiki)

M26 Modular
        Accessory Shotgun System MASS

This is an 12 gauge shotgun that mounts like the M203.  Replacing the M500 (Wiki) shotgun.

Because it's length is too short to qualify as a shotgun I doubt it can be sold in a civilian version.
Although it might be classified as a shotgun pistol.

Ammunition (Wiki)

There's a question about what ammo fits what.
For example the practice ammo for the Mk19 & M79 shown below does not fit the AN-M8 flare pistol.  I have a Webly & Scott 1.5" (40mm) flare pistol on the way to help resolve this.
The AN/M8 Flare Pistol  will not chamber 40mm grenade rounds.

40 mm practice rounds 1969 M385
These rounds do not use the .38 blank
 but might be using an aluminum 12 ga short blank
or just a pistol/rifle primer?
These are for the Mk 19, not the M79/M203.
See: Amron- 40mm Cases & Bodies  & Grassi below
The M118/M195 case appears to use the .38 blank.
40 mm practice
                rounds 1969 M385
Case marked:
AMM LOT MA-355-44

Case Cartridge M169
40 mm practice
                rounds 1969 M385

Solid aluminum projectile marked:
CTG             40 MM
Note different colors of center and outer case
around primer.
40 mm practice
                rounds 1969 M385

Empty M169 case
You can see the huge hole where a plug (12 gauge?)
with primer fits.
Photo from Island Ordnance
Empty M169 40 mm case

Case Cartridge Practice M212

November 2017 from eBay seller: coolkollectables
body outside dia: 41.25mm

Fig 1 used rounds
Case Cartridge
                Practice M212, 40mm
Fig 2 hollow nose cones.
Case Cartridge
                Practice M212, 40mm
Fig 3 using .357 Mag to substitute for
a .38 blank so show size.
Case Cartridge
                Practice M212, 40mm
Fig 3
Case Cartridge
                Practice M212, 40mm

Ping Pong Ball Adapter

While traveling in Canada many decades ago picked up a ships port or starboard kerosene lantern and a flare pistol from a maritime surplus store.  The flare pistol was old pitted metal with handmade wooden grips.  The flare was a standard 40mm size.  For fun a friend made an adapter to allow shooting a ping pong ball by making the bore of the adapter 1.48" I.D.  (37.6mm) (Wiki: Ping Pong ball 40mm) Propulsion by means of a small rifle/pistol primer (external web page with dimensions) (no powder) with a pocket diameter near 0.175" I.D.  The main body diameter is about 39.8mm, but at the time I didn't know about 40mm grenades and so just made the OD to fit the flare gun.

If the ping pong ball is used by itself the primer may blow a hole into it, so a few disks of cardboard are needed as packing/wadding below the ping pong ball.  It will shoot the ball over the top of power lines never to be seen again.

40mm gernade to
                Ping Pong Ball Adapter
40mm gernade to
                Ping Pong Ball Adapter 40mm gernade to
                Ping Pong Ball Adapter

40mm (37mm?) antenna cartridge

This was a Vietnam era round probably used by the special forces in conjunction with the GRC-109 to put a wire antenna up in the tree canopy.

40mm antenna

40mm ammo Patents

SB 742-1310-94-50 Cartridge, 40-mm: Riot Control, CS, M674 & Red Smoke, RS, M675
SB 742-1310-94-51 CARTRIDGE, 40-MM: TACTICAL CS, M651

Fuse Patents

1321455 Percussion Fuse, Nov 11, 1919, - "all-ways" Stokes shell (Wiki: Stokes mortar, Mortar)
Projectile having a movable interior fuze, Jan 21, 1992, 102/273, 102/246, 102/248, 102/255


Baselining of the 40mm Family of Ammunition, James Grassi, 30 March 2006 -
page 11 illustration of 3 cases:
M118, M195 & M212 40
        mm gernade cases

Establishment of Production Line for Manufacture of 40mm M169 Cartridge Case, Andrew Vargo, Amron Corp.

MIL-C-63062 40 mm cartridge case M169, Cup Closing
MIL-C-63063 (PA), 29 March 1976 plug for M169, dwg: 8886332, MIL-DTL-0060982C
MIL-C-48070 M169 40mm case inert metal parts May 1970

Individual Integrated Fighting System (Wiki)

A possible follow on to ALICE but was replaced by MOLLE.

8415-01-317-1622 Vest, Grenade Carrier (40mm)
This vest is designed to both carry the 40mm gernades and to also act as suspenders for the standard ALICE belt.  It has built-in shoulder pads and a number of snap/velcro loops at the bottom to attach to the belt.  One size fits all.





Patent Class Number

42 Firearms
89 Ordinance
1.1 misc
1.14 explosive operated tools
102 ammunition
430 Cartridges
439 Projectile Structure
124 Mechanical Guns and Projectors (not explosive)

1816265 Portable Firearm for Casting Bombs and Grenades by Means of Ordinary Bullet Cartridges, L. Savani (Breda), Jul 28 1931, 42/105 -
used gas pressure piped from rifle barrel

2737889   Let me know more about this Incendiary device
2737889 Incendiary
                shell, Maurice E Barker, Filed: Jun 20, 1941, (15 year
                delay) Pub: Mar 13, 1956
2737889 Incendiary
                shell, Maurice E Barker, Filed: Jun 20, 1941, (15 year
                delay) Pub: Mar 13, 1956 2737889 Incendiary shell, Maurice E Barker, Secretary of War, Filed: Jun 20, 1941, (15 year delay) Pub: Mar 13, 1956, 102/365, 42/106 -

2888768 Underwater Spear Gun, Erein W. Taylor, Jun 2 1959, 42/1.14 ; 102/504; 124/27; 124/37; 124/67; 42/69.01; 43/6; 89/1.1 - uses .22 rimfire cartridge
2938429 Explosive Release Actuator, J.J. Jaglowski (Navy), May 31 1960, 89/1.14 ; 123/24A; 294/82.29; 60/632; 89/1.51 -aircraft bomb rack
3404598 Cup-Sealed Actuator with Obturating Groove Anchoring and Sealing Arrangement, M.G. Angelos (AAI), Dec 30 1966, 89/1.14 ; 102/530 -
The propellant is contained in an expandable metal case that's sealed so no gas escapes
2575071 Explosive Operated Device, G.O. Rockwell (Navy), Nov 13 1951, - The propellant is contained in an expandable metal case that's sealed so no gas escapes
3106131 Cartridge Actuated Device, I.R. Barr & N.J.La Costa (AAI), Oct 8 1963, -  The propellant is contained in an expandable metal case that's sealed so no gas escapes.  moves piston a fixed distance.
3119302 Gas Sealed Explosive Propelling Arrangement, I.R. Barr (AAI), Jan 28 1964, - separates adjacent bulkheads (explosively actuated separable bolt electric ignition
Called By:
3967552 Percussion ignition system for a smokeless, flashless, low noise cartridge Jul 6, 1976
3971322 Pressure actuated tube primer Jul 27, 1976
4047465 Telescoped explosive driver Sep 13, 1977
4406209 Projectile-firing weapons Sep 27, 1983
4549464 Inflatable, aerodynamic shroud Oct 29, 1985
4635443 Non-fouling actuating mechanism Jan 13, 1987
4671178 Low energy fuses Jun 9, 1987
5372071 Thrusting separation system Dec 13, 1994
5421263 Cartridge for spraying a liquid into the barrel of a firearm Jun 6, 1995
5493975 Cartridge for a power driven tool Feb 27, 1996
5585596 Thrusting separation system Dec 17, 1996
5834681 Reloadable high-low pressure ammunition cartridge Nov 10, 1998

3507067 Grenade launcher having a rotatable forwardly sliding barrel and removable firing mechanism, Into Henry A, Colt S Inc, Apr 21, 1970, 42/10, 42/69.1, 42/70.1, 89/14.5, 42/106 - M203?  
3106131 Cartridge Actuated Device, Barr (AAI), Oct 8 1963 -
Packaged unit for operating valves, cutting and splicing cable, actuating linkages, propelling masses, disconnecting components, initiating sequential operations, etc.
This particular one has a telescoping completely enclosed expansion chamber so can be used in explosive atmospheres
3119302 Gas Sealed Explosive Propelling Arrangement, I.R. Barr (AAI), Jan 28 1964, 89/1.14 ; 102/378; 29/421.2; 29/426.4; 29/426.5; 30/DIG.4; 411/441; 60/632 -
 looks like aircraft bomb rack?
3120186 Grenade Round with Telescoping Rifled Barrel, E.M. Harvey (Army), Feb 4 1964, 102/439 ; 102/434 -

3249010 Zip Cartridge, J.W. Blain (Lockheed Aircraft), May 3 1966, 89/1.1 ; 102/530 -
Plunger is used to propel round while sealing the combustion gas preventing muzzle flash and noise
3279114 Grenade Launcher, K.R. Lewis (Colt), Oct 18 1966, 42/105 - filed Sep 25 1964 - clips under M16 (M203?)
cites US patents from 1910 to 1946
does not look like for M16
3332162 Combined Rifle and Grenade Launcher, W.E. Martwick (Honeywell), Kul 25 1967 - filed Dec 22 1965 - modifies the M16 gas system
3416252 Combined Firing and Ejecting Mechanism for a Grenade Launcher, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Dec 17 1968, 42/105 - filed Apr 2 1963
3404477 Semiautomatic Grenade Launcher, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Oct 8 1968, 42/105 ; 42/25 - filed May 23 1961
this group of 3 patents covers clip fed semi auto launcher that fits under the barrel of a M16 rifle in a way similar to the M203
3404478 Semiautomatic Grenade Launcher, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Oct 8 1968, 42/105 ; 42/25 - filed May 23 1961
3404479 Semiautomatic Grenade Launcher, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Oct 8 1968, 42/105 ; 42/25; 89/191.01 - filed May 23 1961

3404598 Cup-sealed Actuator with Obturating Groove Anchoring and Sealing Arrangement, Angelos (AAI), Oct 8 1968 - simpler to manufacturer
3408761 Ammunition Launcher Firing Mechanism with Breech Closure means, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Nov 5 1968 - filed Jun 13, 1961, M203?
3421242 Firearm Ejector, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Jan 14 1969, 42/25 ; 42/105 - filed May 23 1961 - M203?
3507067 Grenade Launcher having a Rotatable Forwardly Sliding Barrel, H.A. Into (Colt), - filed Dec 14 1967 for use on M16
calls 3279114
3538635 Combined Extractor and Ejector Mechanism for Automatic Grenade Launcher, H.H. Friend (Army), Nov 10 1970, 42/10 ; 42/105; 42/25 - filed Dec 26 1968
3566527 Emergency Weapon for Firing High-velocity Grenade, S.D. Silsby (Army), Mar 2 1971, 42/41 ; 42/105; 42/45 - filed Dec 6 1968
3568350 Emergency Firearm, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Mar 9 1971, 42/75.01 ; 42/40 - filed Dec 17, 1968
3604137 Sighting System for a Firearm0Carried Grenade Launcher, Stanley D. Silsby (US Army), Sep 14 1971 42/137 ; 42/148 - filed Jun 17 1969
3611867 Emergency Weapon for Firing High-velocity Grenade, S.D. Silsby (Army), Oct 12 1971, 89/14.05 ; 42/105 -  filed Nov 19 1968 -
a way for chopper crew members to fire the M384 HE round which normally has too much recoil for manual firing
barrel has gas bleed holes to lower pressure
3641961 Grenade Launcher with Pivotally Mounted Barrel, P.H. Ellis (Army),  Feb 15 1972, 42/105 - filed May 21 1969
3687078 Ammunition round, Us Army, Aug 29, 1972, 102/453 - high-low pressure interior ballistics system
3738271 Grenade Round with means giving Forward Momentum to the Fired Case, N.J. LaCosta (Army), Jun 12 1973, 102/430 ; 102/482 -
telescoping chamber holds all combustion gas and flash inside the round so there's no muzzle flash and no explosive noise.  Cartridge case contains short rifled barrel.
3951070 Non-hazardous ring airfoil projectile of non-lethal material Apr 20, 1976
3967552 Percussion ignition system for a smokeless, flashless, low noise cartridge Jul 6, 1976
4047465 Telescoped explosive driver Sep 13, 1977
4406209 Projectile-firing weapons Sep 27, 1983
4478150 Cartridge with elastic pusher cup Oct 23, 1984
5121692 Non-lethal, non-penetrating training bullet and cartridge with impact marking capability Jun 16, 1992
5686692 Single fuse follow-through grenade Nov 11, 1997
7194960 Non-lethal projectiles for delivering an inhibiting substance to a living target Mar 27, 2007
3771451 Low Pressure Ballistic System, William B. Woodring (Olin), Nov 13 1973, 102/430 ; 102/482 - low pressure only system, not High-Low type uses special propellant
3967402 Manually-operated Firearm with Forward-moving barrel and Pivoted Breach, G.E. Cooksey (Army), Jul 6 1976, 42/10 ; 42/105; 42/26; 42/38 - filed Jan 22 1975
M79 type but must be newer
3820463 Shotgun grenade, Leonard G, Ross H (Us NavyUs) China Lake, priority: Oct 30, 1972, 102/436, 102/434, 102/439

3967403 Manually-operated firearm with forward-moving barrel and automatic breech lock , George L. Reynolds (Army), Jul 6, 1976 42/10 ; 42/105 - filed Jan 22, 1975

7004074Controlled fluid energy delivery burst cartridge, Bruce G. Van Stratum (Martin-Electronics Inc), Feb 28, 2006, 102/470 ; 102/430; 102/469 -
89563 Cartridge, G.H. Daw, May 4 1869, 102/469 - rolled & soldered sheet metal tube, paper base
99899 Primer and Cartridge, B.B. Hotchkiss, Feb 15 1870, 102/470 -
116094 Method of Priming T.J. Powers, Jun 20 1871, 102/470 -
148366 Primers for Cartridges, A.C. Hobbs, Mar 10 1874, 102/470 -
278394 Cartridge Primer, J.H. Bullard, May 29 1883, 102/470 -
3728967 Tri-Pri Three Contact Primer,  Hinkle; Charles J. & Marquardt; Frank R. (Navy), Apr 1973 - electrically initiated primer
3771451 Low Pressure Ballistic System, W.B. Woodring (Olin), Nov 1973 - slow burning propellant.
3120186 above
3645207 Combustible Moistureproof Percussion, E.S. Daniels (TRW Army), - for use in casless cartridge
3698319 High Temperature-resistant Waterproof Caseless Primer, J.B. Quinlan, E.F.V. Artsdalen (Army)
3935816 Construction for cartridge Feb 3, 1976
3983817 Spotting projectile Oct 5, 1976
4164903 Shotgun wad for use as a practice projectile Aug 21, 1979
4370930 End cap for a propellant container Feb 1, 1983
4493263 Ballistic propulsion system Jan 15, 1985
4587905 Wad and slug for a shotgun cartridge May 13, 1986
4887674 Cartridge operated fire extinguisher Dec 19, 1989
4892038 Cartridged ammunition Jan 9, 1990
4913054 Projectile delivery apparatus Apr 3, 1990
5078117 Projectile propellant apparatus and method Jan 7, 1992
5086703 Universal projectile ammunition Feb 11, 1992
5259319 Reusable training ammunition Nov 9, 1993
5341744 Cleaning shell for firearms Aug 30, 1994
5353779 Self-contained cartridge for launching a low speed projectile Oct 11, 1994
5402729 Munition for low-pressure firing of projectiles from large-caliber guns Apr 4, 1995
5408931 Shotgun ammunition Apr 25, 1995
5429054 Tracer cartridges Jul 4, 1995
5493975 Cartridge for a power driven tool Feb 27, 1996
5703322 Cartridge having high pressure light gas Dec 30, 1997
5834681 Reloadable high-low pressure ammunition cartridge Nov 10, 1998
5936189 Cartridged ammunition Aug 10, 1999
6041712 Non-lethal cartridge with spin-stabilized projectile Mar 28, 2000
6189926 Airbag inflator with center discharge and soft onset Feb 20, 2001
6198718 Disc cartridge Mar 6, 2001
6230733 Self-contained rupture disk cartridge May 15, 2001
6328906 Chemical delivery systems for fire suppression Dec 11, 2001
6532402 Method for selecting a robotic mechanism best suited to perform a job from multiple robotic mechanisms in a storage library Mar 11, 2003
6619211 Practice ammunition Sep 16, 2003

Called By:
7373887 Expanding projectile May 20, 2008

10643205 Method and apparatus for performing reconnaissance, intelligence-gathering, and Surveillance over a Zone, P. Rayond, V. Wegner & W. Knorr - hand launched from tube.

11225807 Deployable Monitoring Device having Self-Righting Housing and Associated Method, Y.W. Chang, W. Grainger, M Johnson, W. Traeger, P.D.L. Rios, W. Osterholm  - sits on floor hostage situation
6831699 Deployable monitoring device having self-righting housing and associated method, (Chang Ind) -

US 2006/0283345 A1Surveillance projectile, P.H. Feldman, M.J. Ray, J.F. McNutly, filed Jun 16 2005 - 40 mm round fired into building with: IR light source, Audio Tx, Video Tx, etc.  Switch turns on unit when it leaves barrel.

Stanley D. Silsby Patents

3054208 Firing Mechanism for a Spotting Rifle, S.D. Silsby (Army), Sep 18 1962, 42/70.08 ; 42/106; 89/27.11 - has two safeties, one for each of the two man team
3010370 Controlled Burst Firing Mechanism, S.D. Silsby (Army), Nov 28 1961, 89/129.02 - maybe 3 rounds for M16
3204529 Controlled Burst Firing Mechanism, S.D. Silsby (Army), Sep 7 1965, 89/140 ; 89/129.02; 89/149 - filed May 4, 1964
3345771 High Capacity Magazine and Cooperating Firearm, S.D. Silsby (Army), Oct 10 1967, 42/18 ; 42/50 - filed Jan 7, 1966 - two mags each with staggered cartridges side by side

Rifle Mounted for hand grenades

1900790 Grenade, Brandt Edgar William, Mar 7, 1933, 102/485, 102/253, 42/105 - bullet catching spigot type  
Grenade launcher, Moore Wiley T, Filed: Nov 21, 1941, Pub: Jan 18, 1944, 42/105 
2455361 Grenade launcher, Garand John C, Dec 7, 1948, 42/105  
Projectile fuse, McCaslin James F, Aug 23, 1949, 102/230, 102/483- spigot type, with safety pin that needs to be removed
Mounting of grenade launcher on firearm with stabilizer, Garand John C, Aug 21, 1951, 42/105   
2748518 Grenade launcher, Moran Robert W, Jun 5, 1956 -
2807112 Grenade launcher for a gun with a gas cylinder, Garand John C, Sep 24, 1957, 42/105, 89/14.2, 89/191.1 
2846949 Arming of rifle grenades, Bowles Romald E, Maurice Apstein, Mitchell David G, Rongus Leo P, Aug 12, 1958, 102/483, 102/247 - spigot type uses 1/32" thick aluminum deformable diaphragm, 
2968870 Sighting device for rifle grenades and the like, William Brandt Edgar, Energa, Jan 24, 1961. 42/148, 42/142, 102/483 -
3156187 Rifle-grenades, Boris Baton. Energa, Nov 10, 1964, 102/483, 102/498 - spigot type
3479956 Self-propelled rifle grenade capable of being launched by bullet impact, Birkigt Louis, Brevets Aero Mecaniques, Nov 25, 1969, 102/483 - bullet catching spigot type  
3664263 Bullet trap, John J Driscoll, Allied Res Ass Inc, May 23, 1972, 102/485, 42/105 - Referenced by (34)
Bullet trap and bullet deflector in rifle grenade, Tsvi J. Gordon, David Moseinco, IMI, Feb 4, 1986, 102/485 -    

Mk 18 Navy  Gun Rapid Fire 40 mm (Wiki)

Forgotten Weapons: Vietnam Mk18 Mod0 Hand-Crank Grenade Launcher - Used on Navy patrol boats (Wiki: PBR, PCF, SOC), maybe 250 yard range.  Uses 40x46 low pressure 40mm rounds same as the M79, not the newer 40x53mm high pressure rounds like used on the Mk 19.  From Owen St. Hilaire: " This gun would have to be hand cranked because there would not be enough recoil force or gas pressure to make an automatic action function."

3431820 Grenade launcher, Chinn George M, Schnatter William P, Watson Henry F, Us Navy, Filed:Mar 13, 1968, Pub: Mar 11, 1969, 89/161, 89/33.3, 42/105, 89/148 This is a full auto version of the Mk 18 hand cranked version.
3563132 Grenade launcher, Cashen Walter R, Chinn George M, Schnatter William P, Us Navy, Feb 16, 1971, 89/33.14, 89/149, 89/198, 89/135, 89/148, 89/132

Stud Driver

2931039 Cartridge firing apparatus, Henning Robert W, Roger Marsh, Olin Mathieson, Apr 5, 1960, 227/11, 89/28.5, 42/10, 89/27.11, 102/464 -
3087428 Explosive propelling device, Jr Harry E Frech, Olin Mathieson, Apr 30, 1963, 102/531, 42/69.1, 89/1.1

Drone Net
10197365B1 Scalable Effects Net Warhead, Tomasz Blyskal, Richard Fong, LaMar Thompson, Army, 2019 Feb 5 - for small drones (quadcopters)
2372383 Projectile (anti-aircraft net), Filed: 1942-03-19
6626077 Intercept vehicle for airborne nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction, Filed: 2002-10-16 - web captures & slows missile
7028947 Self-powered tethered decoy for heat-seeking transport aircraft missile defense, Priority: 2004-04-30 - MANPAD (Wiki) defense for airliners
7412916 Fixed deployed net for hit-to-kill vehicle, Priority: 2002-08-29 - a net - Ref: ISBN 1-56347-255-4 & ISBN 1-56347-473-5
7415917 Fixed deployed net for hit-to-kill vehicle, Priority: 2002-08-29 - a net -
8141493 Projectile for use with a rifled barrel, Priority: 2010-11-02 - round expands because of rotation
8205537 Interceptor projectile with net and tether, Priority: 2008-08-11 - net for RPG (Wiki)
8387507 Weapon interceptor projectile with deployable frame and net, Priority: 2008-08-11 - net for RPG
8387540 Interceptor projectile and method of use, Priority: 2008-08-11 - net for RPG
9074858 Projectile-deployed countermeasure system, Priority: 2012-07-13 - semirigid barrier captures RPG


Ruger SP101 357 Mag Revolver
Hammerlli M150 Free Pistol
FN FAL ".308 Match" Rifle, optical sights, ballistics, Picatinny rail
Daisy BB Rifle
Survival Kit with Pocket Pen Gun flare launcher
Wiki: China Lake Grenade Launcher - Pump action
Semi-automatic Weapons
China Lake Patents: 40mm grenade pump action, Sidewinder, VT Fuse, &Etc.
Pop & Squirt Guns


Martin-Electronics Inc - Innovative low, medium & high velocity rounds including the HUNTIR video camera
Rubber grenades
Exotic Firearms - Flare components

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